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Access to Credit by Small Businesses: How Relevant Are Race, Ethnicity, and Gender?

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  • Elizabeth Asiedu
  • James A. Freeman
  • Akwasi Nti-Addae

Abstract

This paper employs data from the 1998 and 2003 Survey of Small Business Finances to analyze whether, after controlling for observable factors that influence loan decisions, there is a significant difference in the loan approval rate and the interest rate charged on approved loans for businesses owned by minority or white females and firms owned by white males.

Suggested Citation

  • Elizabeth Asiedu & James A. Freeman & Akwasi Nti-Addae, 2012. "Access to Credit by Small Businesses: How Relevant Are Race, Ethnicity, and Gender?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 532-537, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:102:y:2012:i:3:p:532-37
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Cavalluzzo, Ken S & Cavalluzzo, Linda C, 1998. "Market Structure and Discrimination: The Case of Small Businesses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 771-792, November.
    2. Blanchard, Lloyd & Zhao, Bo & Yinger, John, 2008. "Do lenders discriminate against minority and woman entrepreneurs?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 467-497, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Štěpán Jurajda & Radek Janhuba, 2018. "Gender in banking and mortgage behavior," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(20), pages 1432-1435, November.
    2. Faisal Buyinza & John Mutenyo & Anthony Tibaingana, 2018. "Factors Affecting Access to Formal Credit by Micro and Small Enterprises in Uganda," Athens Journal of Business & Economics, Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), vol. 4(4), pages 405-424, October.
    3. Nathan, Max, 2013. "Top team demographics, innovation and business performance: findings from English firms and cities 2008-9," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 59250, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    4. Dai, Na & Ivanov, Vladimir & Cole, Rebel A., 2017. "Entrepreneurial optimism, credit availability, and cost of financing: Evidence from U.S. small businesses," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 289-307.
    5. Bradley, Samantha R. & Gicheva, Dora & Hassell, Lydia & Link, Albert N., 2013. "Gender Differences in Access to Private Investment Funding to Support the Development of New Technologies," UNCG Economics Working Papers 13-9, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    6. Ashwini Deshpande & Smriti Sharma, 2016. "Disadvantage and discrimination in self-employment: caste gaps in earnings in Indian small businesses," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 325-346, February.
    7. Lina Aldén & Mats Hammarstedt, 2016. "Discrimination in the Credit Market? Access to Financial Capital among Self-employed Immigrants," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(1), pages 3-31, February.
    8. Rolando Gonzales & Gabriela Aguilera-Lizarazu & Andrea Rojas-Hosse & Patricia Aranda, 2016. "Preference for women but less preference for indigenous women: A lab-field experiment of loan discrimination in a developing economy," Working Papers PIERI 2016-24, PEP-PIERI.
    9. Steven Ongena & Alexander Popov, 2016. "Gender Bias and Credit Access," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 48(8), pages 1691-1724, December.
    10. Bryson, Alex & Dale-Olsen, Harald & Gulbrandsen, Trygve, 2016. "Family Ownership, Workplace Closure and the Recession," IZA Discussion Papers 9877, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    11. Max Nathan, 2013. "Top Team Demographics, Innovation and Business Performance: Findings from English Firms and Cities 2008-9," SERC Discussion Papers 0129, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
    12. Faisal Buyinza & Anthony Tibaingana & John Mutenyo, 2018. "Factors Affecting Access to Formal Credit by Micro and Small Enterprises in Uganda," ICAE Working Papers 83, Johannes Kepler University, Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy.
    13. Sunil Mitra Kumar, 2016. "Why does caste still influence access to agricultural credit?," WIDER Working Paper Series 086, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. Giorgio Calcagnini & Germana Giombini & Elisa Lenti, 2015. "Gender Differences in Bank Loan Access: An Empirical Analysis," Italian Economic Journal: A Continuation of Rivista Italiana degli Economisti and Giornale degli Economisti, Springer;Società Italiana degli Economisti (Italian Economic Association), vol. 1(2), pages 193-217, July.
    15. Stefania Basiglio & Paola De Vincentiis & Eleonora Isaia & Mariacristina Rossi, 2019. "Credit Access and Approval," Working papers 061, Department of Economics and Statistics (Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Sociali e Matematico-Statistiche), University of Torino.
    16. Pham, Tho & Talavera, Oleksandr, 2018. "Discrimination, Social Capital, and Financial Constraints: The Case of Viet Nam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 228-242.
    17. Cole, Rebel & Sokolyk, Tatyana, 2016. "Who needs credit and who gets credit? Evidence from the surveys of small business finances," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 40-60.
    18. Daniel Lechmann & Claus Schnabel, 2012. "Why is there a gender earnings gap in self-employment? A decomposition analysis with German data," IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 1(1), pages 1-25, December.
    19. Marios Michaelides, 2017. "Nascent Entrepreneurship and Race: Evidence from the GATE Experiment," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 02-2017, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
    20. Claudia Piras & Andrea Filippo Presbitero & Roberta Rabellotti, 2013. "Definitions Matter: Measuring Gender Gaps in Firms' Access to Credit," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 90, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    21. Mascia, Danilo V. & Rossi, Stefania P.S., 2017. "Is there a gender effect on the cost of bank financing?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 136-153.
    22. Agarwal, Sumit & Green, Richard & Rosenblatt, Eric & Yao, Vincent W. & Zhang, Jian, 2018. "Gender difference and intra-household economic power in mortgage signing order," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 86-100.
    23. Basiglio, Stefania, 2018. "Essays on financial behaviour of households and firms," Other publications TiSEM c13423c5-8bf2-44a7-baa7-3, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.

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