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Access to Credit by Small Businesses: How Relevant Are Race, Ethnicity, and Gender?

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Listed:
  • Elizabeth Asiedu
  • James A. Freeman
  • Akwasi Nti-Addae

Abstract

This paper employs data from the 1998 and 2003 Survey of Small Business Finances to analyze whether, after controlling for observable factors that influence loan decisions, there is a significant difference in the loan approval rate and the interest rate charged on approved loans for businesses owned by minority or white females and firms owned by white males.

Suggested Citation

  • Elizabeth Asiedu & James A. Freeman & Akwasi Nti-Addae, 2012. "Access to Credit by Small Businesses: How Relevant Are Race, Ethnicity, and Gender?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 532-537, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:102:y:2012:i:3:p:532-37
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    File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.102.3.532
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Cavalluzzo, Ken S & Cavalluzzo, Linda C, 1998. "Market Structure and Discrimination: The Case of Small Businesses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 771-792, November.
    2. Blanchard, Lloyd & Zhao, Bo & Yinger, John, 2008. "Do lenders discriminate against minority and woman entrepreneurs?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 467-497, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Sunil Mitra Kumar, 2016. "Why does caste still influence access to agricultural credit?," WIDER Working Paper Series 086, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    2. Max Nathan, 2013. "Top Team Demographics, Innovation And Business Performance: Findings From English Firms And Cities, 2008-9," ERSA conference papers ersa13p69, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Giorgio Calcagnini & Germana Giombini & Elisa Lenti, 2015. "Gender Differences in Bank Loan Access: An Empirical Analysis," Italian Economic Journal: A Continuation of Rivista Italiana degli Economisti and Giornale degli Economisti, Springer;Società Italiana degli Economisti (Italian Economic Association), pages 193-217.
    4. Nathan, Max, 2013. "Top team demographics, innovation and business performance: findings from English firms and cities 2008-9," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 59250, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    5. repec:eee:corfin:v:44:y:2017:i:c:p:289-307 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Bradley, Samantha R. & Gicheva, Dora & Hassell, Lydia & Link, Albert N., 2013. "Gender Differences in Access to Private Investment Funding to Support the Development of New Technologies," UNCG Economics Working Papers 13-9, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    7. Ashwini Deshpande & Smriti Sharma, 2016. "Disadvantage and discrimination in self-employment: caste gaps in earnings in Indian small businesses," Small Business Economics, Springer, pages 325-346.
    8. Alex Bryson & Harald Dale-Olsen & Trygve Gulbrandsen, 2016. "Family ownership, Workplace Closure and the Recession," DoQSS Working Papers 16-06, Department of Quantitative Social Science - UCL Institute of Education, University College London.
    9. repec:wly:jmoncb:v:48:y:2016:i:8:p:1691-1724 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Rolando Gonzales & Gabriela Aguilera-Lizarazu & Andrea Rojas-Hosse & Patricia Aranda, 2016. "Preference for women but less preference for indigenous women: A lab-field experiment of loan discrimination in a developing economy," Working Papers PIERI 2016-24, PEP-PIERI.
    11. Steven Ongena & Alexander Popov, 2016. "Gender Bias and Credit Access," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 48(8), pages 1691-1724, December.
    12. repec:eee:wdevel:v:102:y:2018:i:c:p:228-242 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Cole, Rebel & Sokolyk, Tatyana, 2016. "Who needs credit and who gets credit? Evidence from the surveys of small business finances," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, pages 40-60.
    14. Daniel Lechmann & Claus Schnabel, 2012. "Why is there a gender earnings gap in self-employment? A decomposition analysis with German data," IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 1(1), pages 1-25, December.
    15. Marios Michaelides, 2017. "Nascent Entrepreneurship and Race: Evidence from the GATE Experiment," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 02-2017, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
    16. Cole, Rebel & Sokolyk, Tatyana, 2016. "Who needs credit and who gets credit? Evidence from the surveys of small business finances," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, pages 40-60.
    17. Claudia Piras & Andrea Filippo Presbitero & Roberta Rabellotti, 2013. "Definitions Matter: Measuring Gender Gaps in Firms' Access to Credit," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 90, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    18. repec:eee:finsta:v:31:y:2017:i:c:p:136-153 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Pham, Tho & Talavera, Oleksandr, 2018. "Discrimination, Social Capital, and Financial Constraints: The Case of Viet Nam," World Development, Elsevier, pages 228-242.

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