IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/appene/v204y2017icp667-678.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The regulated coal sector and CO2 emissions in Indian growth process: Empirical evidence over half a century and policy suggestions

Author

Listed:
  • Bhattacharya, Mita
  • Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa
  • Lean, Hooi Hooi
  • Bhattacharya, Sankar

Abstract

Despite the recent changing trend in the energy-mix, coal remains the primary source of energy in India. The coal sector in India is one of the most regulated sectors in the world. Considering both sides of the market, we establish the presence of long-run dynamics among economic growth and carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions over half a century. Our innovation in this study is to introduce coal rent, a proxy for regulated coal sector in India in explaining CO2 emissions and the growth process. We find coal rent influences CO2 emissions with a feedback effect. Both trade openness and financial development are established to be significant in influencing growth process with a feedback effect. Using the longest available time series data, the study fills the major gap in the literature by incorporating the competitive process of this sector in the demand-supply framework and establish the need for investment in advanced coal technologies and alternative energy sources in breaking regulatory barriers. In this respect, we establish a significant role of trade openness and financial development in maintaining economic growth and implementing carbon abatement policies in future.

Suggested Citation

  • Bhattacharya, Mita & Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Bhattacharya, Sankar, 2017. "The regulated coal sector and CO2 emissions in Indian growth process: Empirical evidence over half a century and policy suggestions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 204(C), pages 667-678.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:204:y:2017:i:c:p:667-678
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.061
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261917309327
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt, 2007. "Coal mining industry at the crossroads: Towards a coal policy for libralising India," ASARC Working Papers 2007-16, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
    2. Komal, Rabia & Abbas, Faisal, 2015. "Linking financial development, economic growth and energy consumption in Pakistan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 211-220.
    3. Bhattacharya, Mita & Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa & Bhattacharya, Sankar, 2015. "The role of technology on the dynamics of coal consumption–economic growth: New evidence from China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 686-695.
    4. Salvatore, Dominick, 2007. "Growth, international inequalities, and poverty in a globalizing world," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 635-641.
    5. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    6. Jinke, Li & Hualing, Song & Dianming, Geng, 2008. "Causality relationship between coal consumption and GDP: Difference of major OECD and non-OECD countries," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 85(6), pages 421-429, June.
    7. Robin L. Lumsdaine & David H. Papell, 1997. "Multiple Trend Breaks And The Unit-Root Hypothesis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 212-218, May.
    8. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    9. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2012. "Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption-growth nexus: Evidence from a panel error correction model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 733-738.
    10. Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1361-1401, November.
    11. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "Multivariate Granger causality between electricity generation, exports, prices and GDP in Malaysia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 3640-3648.
    12. Perron, Pierre, 1997. "Further evidence on breaking trend functions in macroeconomic variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 355-385, October.
    13. Amy K. Richmond & Robert K. Kaufmann, 2006. "Energy Prices and Turning Points: The Relationship between Income and Energy Use/Carbon Emissions," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 157-180.
    14. Yang, Hao-Yen, 2000. "A note on the causal relationship between energy and GDP in Taiwan," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 309-317, June.
    15. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Energy consumption and growth in South America: Evidence from a panel error correction model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1421-1426, November.
    16. Yoo, Seung-Hoon, 2006. "Causal relationship between coal consumption and economic growth in Korea," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(11), pages 1181-1189, November.
    17. Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "Coal consumption and economic growth revisited," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 160-167, January.
    18. Chandran Govindaraju, V.G.R. & Tang, Chor Foon, 2013. "The dynamic links between CO2 emissions, economic growth and coal consumption in China and India," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 310-318.
    19. Oguz Ocal & Ilhan Ozturk & Alper Aslan, 2013. "Coal Consumption and Economic Growth in Turkey," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 3(2), pages 193-198.
    20. Stephan B. Bruns, Christian Gross and David I. Stern, 2014. "Is There Really Granger Causality Between Energy Use and Output?," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4).
    21. Ozturk, Ilhan & Acaravci, Ali, 2013. "The long-run and causal analysis of energy, growth, openness and financial development on carbon emissions in Turkey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 262-267.
    22. Stern, David I. & Enflo, Kerstin, 2013. "Causality between energy and output in the long-run," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 135-146.
    23. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi, 2012. "The dynamics of electricity consumption and economic growth: A revisit study of their causality in Pakistan," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 146-153.
    24. Garg, Amit & Shukla, P.R., 2009. "Coal and energy security for India: Role of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1032-1041.
    25. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
    26. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    27. Junsoo Lee & Mark C. Strazicich, 2013. "Minimum LM unit root test with one structural break," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(4), pages 2483-2492.
    28. Chandana Chakraborty & Parantap Basu, 2002. "Foreign direct investment and growth in India: a cointegration approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(9), pages 1061-1073.
    29. Bloch, Harry & Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa & Salim, Ruhul, 2012. "Coal consumption, CO2 emission and economic growth in China: Empirical evidence and policy responses," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 518-528.
    30. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R. & Lundblad, Christian, 2005. "Does financial liberalization spur growth?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 3-55, July.
    31. Abbas, Faisal & Choudhury, Nirmalya, 2013. "Electricity consumption-economic growth Nexus: An aggregated and disaggregated causality analysis in India and Pakistan," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 538-553.
    32. Li, Raymond & Leung, Guy C.K., 2012. "Coal consumption and economic growth in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 438-443.
    33. Sadorsky, Perry, 2012. "Energy consumption, output and trade in South America," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 476-488.
    34. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2011. "The renewable energy consumption-growth nexus in Central America," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 343-347, January.
    35. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
    36. Fatai, K & Oxley, Les & Scrimgeour, F.G, 2004. "Modelling the causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP in New Zealand, Australia, India, Indonesia, The Philippines and Thailand," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 431-445.
    37. Ziramba, Emmanuel, 2009. "Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2214-2220, June.
    38. Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan, 2006. "Energy consumption and income in G-7 countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 739-750, October.
    39. Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2004. "Disaggregated industrial energy consumption and GDP: the case of Shanghai, 1952-1999," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 69-75, January.
    40. Kulshreshtha, Mudit & Parikh, Jyoti K., 2000. "Modeling demand for coal in India: vector autoregressive models with cointegrated variables," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 149-168.
    41. Stern, Nicholas, 1989. "The Economics of Development: A Survey," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 597-685, September.
    42. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "On the dynamics of aggregate output, electricity consumption and exports in Malaysia: Evidence from multivariate Granger causality tests," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1963-1971, June.
    43. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 656-660, January.
    44. Yildirim, Ertugrul & Aslan, Alper & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2012. "Coal consumption and industrial production nexus in USA: Cointegration with two unknown structural breaks and causality approaches," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(8), pages 6123-6127.
    45. Gunton, Thomas, 2004. "Energy rent and public policy: an analysis of the Canadian coal industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 151-163, January.
    46. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Zeshan, Muhammad & Afza, Talat, 2012. "Is energy consumption effective to spur economic growth in Pakistan? New evidence from bounds test to level relationships and Granger causality tests," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2310-2319.
    47. Sadorsky, Perry, 2011. "Trade and energy consumption in the Middle East," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 739-749, September.
    48. Sari, Ramazan & Soytas, Ugur, 2004. "Disaggregate energy consumption, employment and income in Turkey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 335-344, May.
    49. Fung, Michael K., 2009. "Financial development and economic growth: Convergence or divergence?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 56-67, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Bhattacharya, Mita & Inekwe, John Nkwoma & Sadorsky, Perry & Saha, Anjan, 2018. "Convergence of energy productivity across Indian states and territories," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 427-440.
    2. Hongzhong Fan & Md Ismail Hossain & Mollah Aminul Islam & Yassin Elshain Yahia, 2019. "The Impact of Trade, Technology and Growth on Environmental Deterioration of China and India," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 9(1), pages 1-29, January.
    3. Taeyoung Jin & Jinsoo Kim, 2018. "Coal Consumption and Economic Growth: Panel Cointegration and Causality Evidence from OECD and Non-OECD Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(3), pages 1-15, March.
    4. Sikder, Arjita & Inekwe, John & Bhattacharya, Mita, 2019. "Economic output in the era of changing energy-mix for G20 countries: New evidence with trade openness and research and development investment," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 235(C), pages 930-938.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Regulation; Energy; Coal; India; Coal rent;

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:204:y:2017:i:c:p:667-678. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405891/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.