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Coal Consumption and Economic Growth in Turkey


  • Oguz Ocal

    (Nevsehir University, Avanos Vocational High School, Nevsehir, Turkey)

  • Ilhan Ozturk

    (Cag University, Faculty of Economics and Business, Mersin, Turkey)

  • Alper Aslan

    (Nevsehir University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Nevsehir, Turkey)


This aim of this paper is to use asymmetric causality tests to examine the coal consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) relationship in Turkey based on data from 1980 to 2006. To investigate this relationship, a multivariate system is employed by including fixed capital formation and labor force variables into the model. The empirical results obtained from asymmetric causality tests show no causality for coal consumption and GDP relationship in Turkey. The results indicate that coal consumption does not affect growth; hence, energy conservation policies may be pursued without adversely affecting growth in Turkey. Thus, neutrality hypothesis is confirmed for Turkey. This means that a decrease in coal consumption does not affect economic growth and vice versa. In this case, policymakers should explore the feasibility of either decreasing the coal consumption or increasing the efficiency of coal consumption.

Suggested Citation

  • Oguz Ocal & Ilhan Ozturk & Alper Aslan, 2013. "Coal Consumption and Economic Growth in Turkey," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 3(2), pages 193-198.
  • Handle: RePEc:eco:journ2:2013-02-9

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "The causal dynamics between coal consumption and growth: Evidence from emerging market economies," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1972-1977, June.
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    7. Jinke, Li & Hualing, Song & Dianming, Geng, 2008. "Causality relationship between coal consumption and GDP: Difference of major OECD and non-OECD countries," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 85(6), pages 421-429, June.
    8. Yoo, Seung-Hoon, 2006. "Causal relationship between coal consumption and economic growth in Korea," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(11), pages 1181-1189, November.
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    10. Ziramba, Emmanuel, 2009. "Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2214-2220, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bhattacharya, Mita & Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa & Bhattacharya, Sankar, 2015. "The role of technology on the dynamics of coal consumption–economic growth: New evidence from China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 686-695.
    2. Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Mutascu, Mihai Ioan & Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu, 2013. "The influence of the international oil prices on the real effective exchange rate in Romania in a wavelet transform framework," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 714-733.
    3. Ali Acaravci & Sinan Erdogan & Guray Akalin, 2015. "The Electricity Consumption, Real Income, Trade Openness and Foreign Direct Investment: The Empirical Evidence from Turkey," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(4), pages 1050-1057.
    4. Huanying Cui, 2016. "China’s Economic Growth and Energy Consumption," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 6(2), pages 349-355.
    5. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Farhani, Sahbi & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2013. "Coal Consumption, Industrial Production and CO2 Emissions in China and India," MPRA Paper 50618, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 12 Oct 2013.
    6. Bilgili, Faik & Koçak, Emrah & Bulut, Ümit & Sualp, M. Nedim, 2016. "How did the US economy react to shale gas production revolution? An advanced time series approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 116(P1), pages 963-977.
    7. Rabab Mudakkar, Syeda & Zaman, Khalid & Shakir, Huma & Arif, Mariam & Naseem, Imran & Naz, Lubna, 2013. "Determinants of energy consumption function in SAARC countries: Balancing the odds," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 566-574.
    8. repec:voj:journl:v:64:y:2017:i:3:p:255-271 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Rohin Anhal, 2013. "Causality between GDP, Energy and Coal Consumption in India, 1970-2011: A Non-parametric Bootstrap Approach," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 3(4), pages 434-446.
    10. Ismail Aliyu Danmaraya & Sallahuddin Hassan, 2016. "Electricity Consumption and Manufacturing Sector Productivity in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag-bounds Testing Approach," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 6(2), pages 195-201.
    11. Ahmad, Ashfaq & Zhao, Yuhuan & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Bano, Sadia & Zhang, Zhonghua & Wang, Song & Liu, Ya, 2016. "Carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth: An aggregate and disaggregate analysis of the Indian economy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 131-143.
    12. repec:eee:appene:v:204:y:2017:i:c:p:667-678 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Economic growth; coal consumption; asymmetric causality; Turkey;

    JEL classification:

    • O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy


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