IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/mos/moswps/archive-43.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Multivariate Granger causality between electricity generation, exports, prices and GDP in Malaysia

Author

Listed:
  • Hooi Hooi Lean
  • Russell Smyth

Abstract

This paper employs annual data for Malaysia from 1970 to 2008 to examine the causal relationship between economic growth, electricity generation, exports and prices in a multivariate model. We find that there is unidirectional Granger causality running from economic growth to electricity generation. However, neither the export-led nor handmaiden theories of trade are supported and there is no causal relationship between prices and economic growth. The policy implication of this result is that electricity conservation policies, including efficiency improvement measures and demand management policies, which are designed to reduce the wastage of electricity and curtail generation can be implemented without having an adverse effect on Malaysia's economic growth.

Suggested Citation

  • Hooi Hooi Lean & Russell Smyth, 2010. "Multivariate Granger causality between electricity generation, exports, prices and GDP in Malaysia," Monash Economics Working Papers archive-43, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:mos:moswps:archive-43
    DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2010.05.008
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.05.008
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.energy.2010.05.008?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mahlia, T. M. I. & Masjuki, H. H. & Saidur, R. & Amalina, M. A., 2004. "Viewpoint: Mitigation of emissions through energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(16), pages 1783-1787, November.
    2. Halicioglu, Ferda, 2009. "An econometric study of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1156-1164, March.
    3. Judith Giles & Cara Williams, 2001. "Export-led growth: a survey of the empirical literature and some non-causality results. Part 2," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(4), pages 445-470.
    4. Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2009. "Energy consumption and economic growth: The experience of African countries revisited," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 217-224.
    5. Saidur, R. & Sattar, M.A. & Masjuki, H.H. & Ahmed, S. & Hashim, U., 2007. "An estimation of the energy and exergy efficiencies for the energy resources consumption in the transportation sector in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 4018-4026, August.
    6. De Vita, G. & Endresen, K. & Hunt, L.C., 2006. "An empirical analysis of energy demand in Namibia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3447-3463, December.
    7. Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "A literature survey on energy-growth nexus," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 340-349, January.
    8. Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2006. "Electricity consumption and economic growth: a time series experience for 17 African countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1106-1114, July.
    9. Diks Cees & Panchenko Valentyn, 2005. "A Note on the Hiemstra-Jones Test for Granger Non-causality," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 9(2), pages 1-9, June.
    10. Masih, Abul M. M. & Masih, Rumi, 1997. "On the temporal causal relationship between energy consumption, real income, and prices: Some new evidence from Asian-energy dependent NICs Based on a multivariate cointegration/vector error-correctio," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 417-440, August.
    11. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2007. "The impact of energy consumption on economic growth: Evidence from linear and nonlinear models in Taiwan," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2282-2294.
    12. Payne, James E., 2009. "On the dynamics of energy consumption and output in the US," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(4), pages 575-577, April.
    13. Saidur, R. & Rahim, N.A. & Ping, H.W. & Jahirul, M.I. & Mekhilef, S. & Masjuki, H.H., 2009. "Energy and emission analysis for industrial motors in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3650-3658, September.
    14. Mehrara, Mohsen, 2007. "Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 2939-2945, May.
    15. Kumar Narayan, Paresh & Singh, Baljeet, 2007. "The electricity consumption and GDP nexus for the Fiji Islands," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1141-1150, November.
    16. James E. Payne, 2010. "Survey of the international evidence on the causal relationship between energy consumption and growth," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(1), pages 53-95, January.
    17. John Loizides & George Vamvoukas, 2005. "Government Expenditure and Economic Growth: Evidence from Trivariate Causality Testing," Journal of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1), pages 125-152, May.
    18. Tsangyao Chang & Wenshwo Fang & Li-Fang Wen, 2001. "Energy consumption, employment, output, and temporal causality: evidence from Taiwan based on cointegration and error-correction modelling techniques," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(8), pages 1045-1056.
    19. Chen, Sheng-Tung & Kuo, Hsiao-I & Chen, Chi-Chung, 2007. "The relationship between GDP and electricity consumption in 10 Asian countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 2611-2621, April.
    20. Masih, Abul M. M. & Masih, Rumi, 1996. "Energy consumption, real income and temporal causality: results from a multi-country study based on cointegration and error-correction modelling techniques," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 165-183, July.
    21. Devereux, Michael, 1989. "A Positive Theory of Inflation and Inflation Variance," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 27(1), pages 105-116, January.
    22. Mishra, Vinod & Smyth, Russell & Sharma, Susan, 2009. "The energy-GDP nexus: Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 210-220, August.
    23. Ang, James B., 2008. "Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 271-278.
    24. Kravis, Irving B, 1970. "Trade as a Handmaiden of Growth: Similarities between the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 80(323), pages 850-872, December.
    25. Stern, David I., 1993. "Energy and economic growth in the USA : A multivariate approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 137-150, April.
    26. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
    27. Subrata Ghatak & Chris Milner & Utku Utkulu, 1997. "Exports, export composition and growth : cointegration and causality evidence for Malaysia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(2), pages 213-223.
    28. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Smyth, Russell, 2005. "Electricity consumption, employment and real income in Australia evidence from multivariate Granger causality tests," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1109-1116, June.
    29. Zamzam Jaafar, Mohd. & Kheng, Wong Hwee & Kamaruddin, Norhayati, 2003. "Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(11), pages 1061-1072, September.
    30. Fatai, K & Oxley, Les & Scrimgeour, F.G, 2004. "Modelling the causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP in New Zealand, Australia, India, Indonesia, The Philippines and Thailand," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 431-445.
    31. Varman, M. & Mahlia, T.M.I. & Masjuki, H.H., 2006. "Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(15), pages 2429-2432, October.
    32. Khalid Yousif Khalafalla & Alan Webb, 2001. "Export-led growth and structural change: evidence from Malaysia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(13), pages 1703-1715.
    33. Al-Mofleh, Anwar & Taib, Soib & Mujeebu, M. Abdul & Salah, Wael, 2009. "Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 733-739.
    34. Yoo, Seung-Hoon & Kim, Yeonbae, 2006. "Electricity generation and economic growth in Indonesia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(14), pages 2890-2899.
    35. Saidur, R. & Sattar, M.A. & Masjuki, H.H. & Abdessalam, H. & Shahruan, B.S., 2007. "Energy and exergy analysis at the utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 1956-1966, March.
    36. Gan, Peck Yean & Li, ZhiDong, 2008. "An econometric study on long-term energy outlook and the implications of renewable energy utilization in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 890-899, February.
    37. Muhammed Islam, 1998. "Export expansion and economic growth: testing for cointegration and causality," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(3), pages 415-425.
    38. Tang, Chor Foon, 2008. "A re-examination of the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 3067-3075, August.
    39. Stern, David I., 2000. "A multivariate cointegration analysis of the role of energy in the US macroeconomy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 267-283, April.
    40. Akinlo, A.E., 2008. "Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from 11 Sub-Sahara African countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2391-2400, September.
    41. Ghosh, Sajal, 2009. "Electricity supply, employment and real GDP in India: evidence from cointegration and Granger-causality tests," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2926-2929, August.
    42. Mahadevan, Renuka & Asafu-Adjaye, John, 2007. "Energy consumption, economic growth and prices: A reassessment using panel VECM for developed and developing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 2481-2490, April.
    43. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    44. Chandran, V.G.R. & Sharma, Susan & Madhavan, Karunagaran, 2010. "Electricity consumption-growth nexus: The case of Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 606-612, January.
    45. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Smyth, Russell, 2009. "Multivariate granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP: Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 229-236, January.
    46. Ibrahim, Mansor H., 2002. "An Empirical Note on the Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: The Case of Malaysia," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 221-232, June Spec.
    47. Masahiro Inoguchi, 2009. "Did capital controls decrease capital flows in Malaysia?," Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 27-48.
    48. Liu, Yaobin, 2009. "Exploring the relationship between urbanization and energy consumption in China using ARDL (autoregressive distributed lag) and FDM (factor decomposition model)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 1846-1854.
    49. Jung, Woo S. & Marshall, Peyton J., 1985. "Exports, growth and causality in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-12.
    50. Mahlia, T. M. I. & Masjuki, H. H. & Saidur, R. & Amalina, M. A., 2004. "Cost-benefit analysis of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(16), pages 1819-1824, November.
    51. Shandre Mugan Thangavelu & Gulasekaran Rajaguru, 2004. "Is there an export or import-led productivity growth in rapidly developing Asian countries? a multivariate VAR analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(10), pages 1083-1093.
    52. Altinay, Galip & Karagol, Erdal, 2005. "Electricity consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Turkey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 849-856, November.
    53. Fumitaka Furuoka, 2007. "Do exports act as “engine” of growth? Evidence from Malaysia," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 6(38), pages 1-14.
    54. Rahman Mohamed, Abdul & Lee, Keat Teong, 2006. "Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(15), pages 2388-2397, October.
    55. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    56. Payne, James E., 2010. "A survey of the electricity consumption-growth literature," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 723-731, March.
    57. Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
    58. Mahlia, T. M. I. & Masjuki, H. H. & Taha, F. M. & Rahim, N. A. & Saidur, R., 2005. "Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 63-68, January.
    59. Chandran, V.G.R. & Munusamy, 2009. "Trade openness and manufacturing growth in Malaysia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 637-647, September.
    60. Friedman, Milton, 1977. "Nobel Lecture: Inflation and Unemployment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(3), pages 451-472, June.
    61. Yoo, S.-H., 2006. "The causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in the ASEAN countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3573-3582, December.
    62. Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2009. "Energy consumption and economic growth nexus in Tanzania: An ARDL bounds testing approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 617-622, February.
    63. Judith Giles & Cara Williams, 2001. "Export-led growth: a survey of the empirical literature and some non-causality results. Part 2," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(4), pages 445-470.
    64. Warr, B.S. & Ayres, R.U., 2010. "Evidence of causality between the quantity and quality of energy consumption and economic growth," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1688-1693.
    65. Saidur, R. & Rahim, N.A. & Masjuki, H.H. & Mekhilef, S. & Ping, H.W. & Jamaluddin, M.F., 2009. "End-use energy analysis in the Malaysian industrial sector," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 153-158.
    66. Sari, Ramazan & Ewing, Bradley T. & Soytas, Ugur, 2008. "The relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in the United States: An ARDL approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2302-2313, September.
    67. Renuka Mahadevan, 2007. "New Evidence on the Export‐led Growth Nexus: A Case Study of Malaysia," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(7), pages 1069-1083, July.
    68. Saidur, R. & Masjuki, H. H. & Mahlia, T. M. I., 2005. "Labeling design effort for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 611-618, March.
    69. Siong Hook Law, 2008. "Does a Country's Openness to Trade and Capital Accounts Lead to Financial Development? Evidence from Malaysia," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 22(2), pages 161-177, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "On the dynamics of aggregate output, electricity consumption and exports in Malaysia: Evidence from multivariate Granger causality tests," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1963-1971, June.
    2. Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "A literature survey on energy-growth nexus," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 340-349, January.
    3. Tang, Chor Foon & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2011. "Revisiting the Electricity Consumption-Growth Nexus for Portugal: Evidence from a Multivariate Framework Analysis," MPRA Paper 28393, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Chandran, V.G.R. & Sharma, Susan & Madhavan, Karunagaran, 2010. "Electricity consumption-growth nexus: The case of Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 606-612, January.
    5. Sofien, Tiba & Omri, Anis, 2016. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy variables, environment and economic growth," MPRA Paper 82555, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Sep 2016.
    6. Tang, Chor Foon & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Arouri, Mohamed, 2013. "Re-investigating the electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Portugal," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1515-1524.
    7. Tiba, Sofien & Omri, Anis, 2017. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy, environment and economic growth," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 1129-1146.
    8. Muhammad Shahbaz & Mete Feridun, 2012. "Electricity consumption and economic growth empirical evidence from Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 46(5), pages 1583-1599, August.
    9. Omri, Anis, 2014. "An international literature survey on energy-economic growth nexus: Evidence from country-specific studies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 951-959.
    10. Anam Azam & Muhammad Rafiq & Muhammad Shafique & Muhammad Ateeq & Jiahai Yuan, 2020. "Causality Relationship Between Electricity Supply and Economic Growth: Evidence from Pakistan," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(4), pages 1-20, February.
    11. Dakpogan, Arnaud & Smit, Eon, 2018. "The effect of electricity losses on GDP in Benin," MPRA Paper 89545, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Tang, Chor Foon & Shahbaz Shabbir, Muhammad, 2011. "Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Portugal using cointegration and causality approaches," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3529-3536, June.
    13. Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2011. "Electricity Consumption, Financial Development and Economic Growth Nexus: A Revisit Study of Their Causality in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 35588, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 Dec 2011.
    14. Habib Hussain Khan & Nahla Samargandi & Adeel Ahmed, 2021. "Economic development, energy consumption, and climate change: An empirical account from Malaysia," Natural Resources Forum, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(4), pages 397-423, November.
    15. Solarin, Sakiru Adebola & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2013. "Trivariate causality between economic growth, urbanisation and electricity consumption in Angola: Cointegration and causality analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 876-884.
    16. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2011. "A dynamic panel study of economic development and the electricity consumption-growth nexus," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 770-781, September.
    17. Nermin Yaþar, 2017. "The Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from Different Income Country Groups," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 7(2), pages 86-97.
    18. Santos, Carlos Filipe & Fuinhas, José Alberto & Marques, António Cardoso, 2014. "O nexus energia-crescimento e o nível da auto-suficiência na produção de petróleo: análise com macro painel [Energy-growth nexus and oil self-sufficiency: macro panel analysis]," MPRA Paper 57008, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Stephan B. Bruns, Christian Gross and David I. Stern, 2014. "Is There Really Granger Causality Between Energy Use and Output?," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4).
    20. Chor Foon Tang and Eu Chye Tan, 2012. "Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth in Portugal: Evidence from a Multivariate Framework Analysis," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4).

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mos:moswps:archive-43. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dxmonau.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Simon Angus (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dxmonau.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.