IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/agecon/v52y2021i1p123-140.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Floods, food security, and coping strategies: Evidence from Afghanistan

Author

Listed:
  • Hamid R. Oskorouchi
  • Alfonso Sousa‐Poza

Abstract

In this paper, we assess the long‐term effect of floods on food security (as measured by calorie and micronutrient consumption) by applying an instrumental variable approach to data from the Afghanistan National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment survey. To identify the determinants of this effect, we also estimate how floods affect per capita yearly household income and poverty status. We find that exposure to flooding during a 12‐month period decreased daily calorie consumption by approximately 60 kcal while increasing the probability of iron, vitamin A, and vitamin C deficiency by 11, 12, and 27 percentage points, respectively. Controlling for price shocks and income only marginally reduces this flood effect on food security, suggesting that impaired livelihoods (rather than price hikes) are its primary driver. We further determine that exposure to this natural disaster decreases income by about 3% and makes flood‐affected households about 3 percentage points more likely to be poor. Lastly, we show that experience of floods is strongly and significantly associated with lower diet quality and quantity, and with engaging in consumption smoothing coping strategies, such as buying food on credit and taking loans. These findings underscore the serious direct impact of floods on both diet and effective behavioral responses to such shocks while emphasizing the need for targeted micronutrient supplementation in disaster relief and food aid measures even after the period of natural disaster emergency.

Suggested Citation

  • Hamid R. Oskorouchi & Alfonso Sousa‐Poza, 2021. "Floods, food security, and coping strategies: Evidence from Afghanistan," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 52(1), pages 123-140, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:agecon:v:52:y:2021:i:1:p:123-140
    DOI: 10.1111/agec.12610
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/agec.12610
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/agec.12610?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. repec:taf:jnlbes:v:30:y:2012:i:1:p:67-80 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Shahidur R. Khandker, 2007. "Coping with flood: role of institutions in Bangladesh," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 36(2), pages 169-180, March.
    3. Anna D'Souza & Dean Jolliffe, 2012. "Rising Food Prices and Coping Strategies: Household-level Evidence from Afghanistan," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(2), pages 282-299, August.
    4. Christopher F Baum & Arthur Lewbel, 2019. "Advice on using heteroskedasticity-based identification," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 19(4), pages 757-767, December.
    5. Camilo Sarmiento, 2007. "The impact of flood hazards on local employment," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(15), pages 1123-1126.
    6. Hartwig De Haen & Günter Hemrich, 2007. "The economics of natural disasters: implications and challenges for food security," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 37(s1), pages 31-45, December.
    7. Sekulova, Filka & van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M., 2016. "Floods and happiness: Empirical evidence from Bulgaria," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 51-57.
    8. D’Souza, Anna & Jolliffe, Dean, 2013. "Conflict, food price shocks, and food insecurity: The experience of Afghan households," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 32-47.
    9. Precious Akampumuza & Hirotaka Matsuda, 2017. "Weather Shocks and Urban Livelihood Strategies: The Gender Dimension of Household Vulnerability in the Kumi District Of Uganda," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(6), pages 953-970, June.
    10. M. Shahe Emran & Zhaoyang Hou, 2013. "Access to Markets and Rural Poverty: Evidence from Household Consumption in China," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(2), pages 682-697, May.
    11. Mallick, Debdulal, 2012. "Microfinance and Moneylender Interest Rate: Evidence from Bangladesh," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1181-1189.
    12. Del Ninno, Carlo & Dorosh, Paul A. & Smith, Lisa C., 2003. "Public Policy, Markets and Household Coping Strategies in Bangladesh: Avoiding a Food Security Crisis Following the 1998 Floods," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1221-1238, July.
    13. Smith, Lisa C. & Subandoro, Ali, 2007. "Measuring food security using household expenditure surveys:," Food security in practice technical guide series 3, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    14. Ian Douglas, 2009. "Climate change, flooding and food security in south Asia," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 1(2), pages 127-136, June.
    15. Goudet, S.M. & Faiz, S. & Bogin, B.A. & Griffiths, P.L., 2011. "Pregnant women's and community health workers' perceptions of root causes of malnutrition among infants and young children in the slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 101(7), pages 1225-1233.
    16. De Silva, M.M.G.T. & Kawasaki, Akiyuki, 2018. "Socioeconomic Vulnerability to Disaster Risk: A Case Study of Flood and Drought Impact in a Rural Sri Lankan Community," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 152(C), pages 131-140.
    17. Nigel Arnell & Simon Gosling, 2016. "The impacts of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 134(3), pages 387-401, February.
    18. Khanal, Uttam & Wilson, Clevo & Hoang, Viet-Ngu & Lee, Boon, 2018. "Farmers' Adaptation to Climate Change, Its Determinants and Impacts on Rice Yield in Nepal," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 144(C), pages 139-147.
    19. World Bank, 2010. "World Development Report 2010," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 4387, December.
    20. Skoufias, Emmanuel, 2003. "Economic Crises and Natural Disasters: Coping Strategies and Policy Implications," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1087-1102, July.
    21. D'Souza, Anna & Jolliffe, Dean, 2010. "Rising food prices and coping strategies : household-level evidence from Afghanistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5466, The World Bank.
    22. Christopher F Baum & Arthur Lewbel & Mark E Schaffer & Oleksander Talavera, 2012. "Instrumental variables estimation using heteroskedasticity-based instruments," United Kingdom Stata Users' Group Meetings 2012 07, Stata Users Group.
    23. Anna D'Souza & Dean Jolliffe, 2014. "Food Insecurity in Vulnerable Populations: Coping with Food Price Shocks in Afghanistan," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 96(3), pages 790-812.
    24. Stephen Devereux, 2007. "The impact of droughts and floods on food security and policy options to alleviate negative effects," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 37(s1), pages 47-58, December.
    25. Valerie Mueller & Agnes Quisumbing, 2011. "How Resilient are Labour Markets to Natural Disasters? The Case of the 1998 Bangladesh Flood," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(12), pages 1954-1971.
    26. Santosh Kumar & Ramona Molitor & Sebastian Vollmer, 2016. "Drought and Early Child Health in Rural India," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 42(1), pages 53-68, March.
    27. von Möllendorff, Charlotte & Hirschfeld, Jesko, 2016. "Measuring impacts of extreme weather events using the life satisfaction approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 108-116.
    28. Nigel W. Arnell & Simon N. Gosling, 2016. "The impacts of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 134(3), pages 387-401, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Negi, D., 2018. "Geography and the Welfare Impact of Food Price Shock," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 277150, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    2. Astrid Sneyers, 2017. "Food, Drought and Conflict Evidence from a Case-Study on Somalia," HiCN Working Papers 252, Households in Conflict Network.
    3. Arouri, Mohamed & Nguyen, Cuong & Youssef, Adel Ben, 2015. "Natural Disasters, Household Welfare, and Resilience: Evidence from Rural Vietnam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 59-77.
    4. Salvucci, Vincenzo & Santos, Ricardo, 2020. "Vulnerability to Natural Shocks: Assessing the Short-Term Impact on Consumption and Poverty of the 2015 Flood in Mozambique," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 176(C).
    5. Bove, Vincenzo & Gavrilova, Evelina, 2014. "Income and Livelihoods in the War in Afghanistan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 113-131.
    6. Vijay Laxmi Pandey & S. Mahendra Dev & Ranjeeta Mishra, 2019. "Pulses in eastern India: production barriers and consumption coping strategies," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 11(3), pages 609-622, June.
    7. Lohmann, Steffen & Lechtenfeld, Tobias, 2015. "The Effect of Drought on Health Outcomes and Health Expenditures in Rural Vietnam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 432-448.
    8. Krähnert, Kati & Fluhrer, Svenja, 2021. "Sitting in the same boat: Subjective well-being and social comparison after an extreme weather event," VfS Annual Conference 2021 (Virtual Conference): Climate Economics 242379, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    9. Abdoul G. Sam & Babatunde O. Abidoye & Sihle Mashaba, 2021. "Climate change and household welfare in sub-Saharan Africa: empirical evidence from Swaziland," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 13(2), pages 439-455, April.
    10. Ndubuisi, Gideon & Owusu, Solomon, 2020. "How important is GVC participation to export upgrading," MERIT Working Papers 2020-026, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    11. Berg Claudia & Emran Shahe & Shilpi Forhad, 2020. "Microfinance and Moneylenders: Long-run Effects of MFIs on Informal Credit Market in Bangladesh," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 20(3), pages 1-35, July.
    12. Lohmann, Paul & Pondorfer, Andreas & Rehdanz, Katrin, 2019. "Natural Hazards and Well-Being in a Small-Scale Island Society," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 344-353.
    13. Kumar, Neha & Quisumbing, Agnes R., 2013. "Gendered impacts of the 2007–2008 food price crisis: Evidence using panel data from rural Ethiopia," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 11-22.
    14. Christophe Gouel, 2014. "Food Price Volatility and Domestic Stabilization Policies in Developing Countries," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Food Price Volatility, pages 261-306, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Bushra Khalid & Bueh Cholaw & Débora Souza Alvim & Shumaila Javeed & Junaid Aziz Khan & Muhammad Asif Javed & Azmat Hayat Khan, 2018. "Riverine flood assessment in Jhang district in connection with ENSO and summer monsoon rainfall over Upper Indus Basin for 2010," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 92(2), pages 971-993, June.
    16. Kumar, Neha & Quisumbing, Agnes R., 2011. "Gendered impacts of the 2007-08 food price crisis: Evidence using panel data from rural Ethiopia," IFPRI discussion papers 1093, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    17. Hassanzoy, Najibullah & Ito, Shoichi & Isoda, Hiroshi & Amekawa, Yuichiro, 2016. "The Effects Of Swings In Global Wheat Prices On The Domestic Markets In Afghanistan," International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (IJFAEC), Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Department of Economics and Finance, vol. 4(4), pages 1-14, October.
    18. Osberghaus, Daniel & Reif, Christiane, 2021. "How do different compensation schemes and loss experience affect insurance decisions? Experimental evidence from two independent and heterogeneous samples," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 187(C).
    19. Xiong, Xianfang & Deng, Lanfang & Li, Hongyi, 2020. "Is winning at the start important: Early childhood family cognitive stimulation and child development," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 118(C).
    20. Mohiburrahman Iqbal, 2013. "Vulnerability to expected poverty in Afghanistan," ASARC Working Papers 2013-14, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:agecon:v:52:y:2021:i:1:p:123-140. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iaaeeea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iaaeeea.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.