1998, Volume 26, Issue 4
- 733-742 Human development and financial conservatism
by Sen, Amartya
1998, Volume 26, Issue 3
- 365-379 Assessing the welfare impacts of public spending
by van de Walle, Dominique
- 381-394 Resource development and inequality in indigenous societies
by O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran
- 395-412 The Political Economy of Household Environmental Management: Gender, Environment and Epidemiology in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area
by Songsore, Jacob & McGranahan, Gordon
- 413-431 The impact of inequality, gender, external assistance and social capital on local-level cooperation
by Molinas, JoseR.
- 433-448 Evolution of the Timber Industry Along an Aging Frontier: The Case of Paragominas (1990-1995)
by Stone, Steven W.
- 449-464 "Deja Vu all over again?": The Mexican crisis and the stabilization of Uruguay in the 1970s
by Blejer, Mario I. & del Castillo, Graciana
- 465-477 Measuring exchange rate misalignment: Inflation differentials and domestic relative prices
by Masters, William A. & Ianchovichina, Elena
- 479-495 Inertia in reforming China's state-Owned enterprises: The case of Chongqing
by Chen, Aimin
- 497-506 Can Trade Liberalization Stimulate Economic Growth in Africa?
by Onafowora, Olugbenga A. & Owoye, Oluwole
- 507-515 Small Country Size and Returns to Scale in Manufacturing
by Briguglio, Lino Pascal
- 529-538 The tobin tax: Reviving a discussion
by Raffer, Kunibert
- 539-550 The cheerful pessimist: Gunnar Myrdal the dissenter (1898-1987)
by Streeten, Paul
1998, Volume 26, Issue 2
- 187-211 New Land is not enough: Agricultural performance of New Lands settlement in West Africa
by Mcmillan, Della E. & Sanders, John H. & Koenig, Dolores & Akwabi-Ameyaw, Kofi & Painter, Thomas M.
- 213-225 Food production, urban areas and policy responses
by Ellis, Frank & Sumberg, James
- 227-238 Civil society in South Africa: Learning from gender themes
by Hirschmann, David
- 239-248 Beyond methodologies: Coalition-building for participatory technology development
by Biggs, Stephen & Smith, Grant
- 249-260 Nests, nodes and niches: A system for process monitoring, information exchange and decision making for multiple stakeholders
by Alsop, Ruth & Farrington, John
- 261-276 Comprehensive impact assessment systems for NGO microenterprise development programs
by Hyman, Eric L. & Dearden, Kirk
- 277-288 The political viability of free market experimentation in Cuba: Evidence from Los Mercados Agropecuarios
by Marshall, Jeffery H.
- 289-296 The return to education: Street vendors in Mexico
by Smith, Paula A. & Metzger, Michael R.
- 297-306 Household characteristics and income inequality during inflationary periods: Recent evidence from Suriname
by Horowitz, Andrew W. & Weinhold, Diana
- 307-310 DALYs: efficiency versus equity
by Anand, Sudhir & Hanson, Kara
- 311-311 Introduction
by Bulmer-Thomas, Victor
- 313-322 The Central American common market: From closed to open regionalism
by Bulmer-Thomas, Victor
- 323-335 Measuring trade creation and trade diversion in the Central American common market: A hicksian alternative
by Nicholls, Shelton M. A.
- 337-344 Intra-industry trade and revealed comparative advantage in the Central American Common Market
by Rodas-Martini, Pablo
- 345-362 Regional integration and agricultural trade in Central America
by Rueda-Junquera, Fernando
1998, Volume 26, Issue 1
- 1-19 The asset vulnerability framework: Reassessing urban poverty reduction strategies
by Moser, Caroline O. N.
- 21-30 Administering contingent valuation surveys in developing countries
by Whittington, Dale
- 31-44 Additionality or diversion? food aid to Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Republics and the implications for developing countries
by Benson, Charlotte & Clay, Edward J.
- 45-59 Has jomtien made any difference? trends in donor funding for education and basic education since the late 1980s
by Bennell, Paul & Furlong, Dominic
- 61-74 The dynamics of micro and small enterprises in developing countries
by Mead, Donald C. & Liedholm, Carl
- 75-87 The politics of pollution control in Brazil: State actors and social movements cleaning up Cubatao
by De Mello Lemos, Maria Carmen
- 89-110 Coping with drought in Zimbabwe: Survey evidence on responses of rural households to risk
by Kinsey, Bill & Burger, Kees & Gunning, Jan Willem
- 111-124 Life cycles, oil cycles, or financial reforms? The growth in private savings rates in Indonesia
by Johansson, Sara
- 125-137 Pension reform, personal pensions and gender differences in pension coverage
by Barrientos, Armando
- 139-153 Productivity effects in brazilian wage determination
by Carneiro, Francisco G.
- 155-169 Measuring production efficiency of small firms in Pakistan
by Burki, Abid A. & Terrell, Dek
- 171-186 River basin development planning and management: A critical review
by Barrow, Christopher J.
1997, Volume 25, Issue 12
- 1959-1961 Editorial: Human capital and human capability
by Sen, Amartya
- 1963-1972 "Unanticipated consequences" in anti-poverty programs
by Klitgaard, Robert
- 1973-1993 Testing the limits of privatization: Argentine railroads
by Ramamurti, Ravi
- 1995-2008 An ecological economic approach to forest and biodiversity conservation: The case of vanuatu
by Tacconi, Luca
- 2009-2026 Pluralism and well-being indices
by Qizilbash, Mozaffar
- 2027-2041 The "hidden hand" behind the resilience of the stateless economy of Somalia
by Mubarak, Jamil A.
- 2043-2056 Measuring differential forest outcomes: A tale of two countries
by Koop, Gary & Tole, Lise
- 2057-2070 Confronting the classification problem: Toward a taxonomy of NGOs
by Vakil, Anna C.
- 2071-2081 The poverty trap: The dual externality model and its policy implications
by Paternostro, Stefano
- 2083-2092 Targeting the poor using ROC curves
by Wodon, Quentin T.
- 2093-2104 Shifting sands: The changing case for monetizing project food aid in Bangladesh
by Dorosh, Paul A. & Haggblade, Steven
- 2105-2114 Political feasibility of structural adjustment in africa: an application of SAM mixed multipliers
by Rich, Karl M. & Winter-Nelson, Alex & Nelson, Gerald C.
- 2115-2128 Export processing zones as catalysts
by Johansson, Helena & Nilsson, Lars
- 2129-2141 Labor remuneration in Jakarta's small enterprises: Exploitative or equitable?
by Van Diermen, Peter
- 2143-2154 Farm earnings, educational attainment, and role of public policy: Some evidence from Mexico
by Singh, Ram D. & Santiago, Maria
- 2155-2158 Formally modelling a gender-segregated economy: A response to William Darity, Jr
by Campbell, D. A. & Warner, James M.
- 2159-2161 Formally modeling a gender-segregated economy: A reply to Campbell and Warner
by Darity, William Jr
1997, Volume 25, Issue 11
- 1743-1754 Editorial: Responsible well-being -- a personal agenda for development
by Chambers, Robert
- 1755-1765 New states, new NGOs? crises and transitions among rural development NGOs in the Andean region
by Bebbington, Anthony
- 1767-1784 The sustainability of development projects: An impact assessment of German vocational-training projects in Latin America
by Stockmann, Reinhard
- 1785-1803 Privatization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Progress and prospects during the 1990s
by Bennell, Paul
- 1805-1820 Forms of external capital and economic development in Latin America: 1820-1997
by Baer, Werner & Hargis, Kent
- 1821-1837 New trends in globalization of corporate R&D and implications for innovation capability in host countries: A survey from India
by Reddy, Prasada
- 1839-1849 The effects of restrictive South African migrant labor policy on the survival of rural households in Southern Africa: A sase study from rural Swaziland
by Leliveld, Andre
- 1851-1851 Foreword
by Chen, John-Ren & Sapsford, David
- 1853-1856 Economic development and policy: Professor Sir Hans Singer's contributions to development economics
by Chen, John-Ren & Sapsford, David
- 1857-1861 Singer, services and software
by Balasubramanyam, Ahalya & Balasubramanyam, V. N.
- 1863-1871 Composite commodities and the Prebisch-Singer thesis
by Chen, John-Ren & Stocker, Herbert
- 1873-1884 Some estimates of Prebisch and Singer effects on the terms of trade between primary producers and manufacturers
by Bloch, Harry & Sapsford, David
- 1885-1892 Trade liberalization and growth in developing countries: Some new evidence
by Greenaway, David & Morgan, Wyn & Wright, Peter
- 1893-1899 Strategic trade policy, learning by doing effects and economic development
by McKay, Andrew & Milner, Chris
- 1901-1907 Helping southern net food importers after the Uruguay round: A proposal
by Raffer, Kunibert
- 1909-1924 Income distribution and poverty: An interregional comparison
by Kim, Kwan S.
- 1925-1936 The pattern of direct foreign investment and economic growth
by Dutt, Amitava Krishna
- 1937-1948 The IMF and the emerging markets: A reappraisal of the central banking model
by Snowden, P. Nicholas
- 1949-1956 The World Bank, "Global Keynesianism" and the distribution of the gains from growth
by Mosley, Paul
1997, Volume 25, Issue 10
- 1561-1568 Editorial: Development, knowledge and the Baconian age
by Sagasti, Francisco
- 1569-1587 The risks and reconstruction model for resettling displaced populations
by Cernea, Michael
- 1589-1607 Growth, structural change and plantation tree crops: The case of rubber
by Barlow, Colin
- 1609-1625 Sources of growth: A reconsideration and general equilibrium application to Indonesia
by Rodrigo, G. Chris & Thorbecke, Erik
- 1627-1637 Growth in a dual economy
by Blomstrom, Magnus & Wolff, Edward N.
- 1639-1655 On the past and future of china's township and village-owned enterprises
by Putterman, Louis
- 1657-1668 The reform of social welfare in China
by Selden, Mark & You, Laiyin
- 1669-1681 Skill development and integrated manufacturing in Mexico
by Sargent, John & Matthews, Linda
- 1683-1700 Technology strategies of large enterprises in Indian industry: Some explorations
by Basant, Rakesh
- 1701-1716 Impacts of tariff escalation on the environment: Literature review and synthesis
by Hecht, Joy E.
- 1717-1730 Real exchange rate targeting and inflation in Turkey: An empirical analysis with policy credibility
by Erol, Turan & Van Wijnbergen, Sweder
- 1731-1742 Repayment performance in group-based credit programs in Bangladesh: An empirical analysis
by Sharma, Manohar & Zeller, Manfred
1997, Volume 25, Issue 9
- 1373-1380 Editorial: Re-sounding the alert--gender, resources and community action
by Agarwal, Bina
- 1381-1398 Method in the madness? a political-economy analysis of the ethnic conflicts in less developed countries
by Bardhan, Pranab
- 1399-1407 Redesigning conditionality
by Collier, Paul & Guillaumont, Patrick & Guillaumont, Sylviane & Gunning, Jan Willem
- 1409-1420 External financing and balance of payments adjustment in developing countries: Getting a better policy mix
by Bird, Graham
- 1421-1430 Development and infinity
by Pretes, Michael
- 1431-1442 Mutual empowerment of state and peasantry: Grassroots democracy in rural China
by Wang, Xu
- 1443-1452 Tropics and economic development: An empirical investigation
by Ram, Rati
- 1453-1470 Export-oriented industrialization through primary processing?
by Owens, Trudy & Wood, Adrian
- 1471-1482 Microentrepreneurs and homeworkers: Convergent categories
by Prugl, Elisabeth & Tinker, Irene
- 1483-1503 Corporate/indigenous partnerships in economic development: The first nations in Canada
by Anderson, Robert B.
- 1505-1527 Food marketing and pricing policy in Eastern and Southern Africa: A survey
by Jayne, T. S. & Jones, Stephen
- 1529-1540 Communal property and land markets: Agricultural development policy in St. Lucia
by Dujon, Veronica
- 1541-1550 The private use of publicly funded industrial technologies in developing countries: Empirical tests for an industrial research institute in India
by Katrak, Homi
- 1551-1559 India's economic growth: A conundrum
by Khatkhate, Deena R.
1997, Volume 25, Issue 8
- 1183-1186 Editorial: Reforming the welfare state in postsocialist societies
by Kornai, Janos
- 1187-1203 The old theory of economic policy and the new institutionalism
by Eggertsson, Thrainn
- 1205-1223 Gender, development and urban social change: Women's community action in global cities
by Lind, Amy
- 1225-1241 Tomatoes, land and hearsay: Property and history in asante in the time of structural adjustment
by Berry, Sara
- 1243-1255 State formation and international aid: The emergence of the Palestinian authority
by Frisch, Hillel & Hofnung, Menachem
- 1257-1269 The Green Revolution and wheat genetic diversity: Some unfounded assumptions
by Smale, Melinda
- 1271-1281 The maturation and growth of infant industries: The case of Korea
by Lee, Jaymin
- 1299-1302 Gender and property rights: Overview
by Meinzen-Dick, Ruth S. & Brown, Lynn R. & Feldstein, Hilary Sims & Quisumbing, Agnes R.
- 1303-1315 Gender, property rights, and natural resources
by Meinzen-Dick, Ruth S. & Brown, Lynn R. & Feldstein, Hilary Sims & Quisumbing, Agnes R.
- 1317-1333 Impact of privatization on gender and property rights in Africa
by Lastarria-Cornhiel, Susana
- 1335-1349 Water: From basic need to commodity: A discussion on gender and water rights in the context of irrigation
by Zwarteveen, Margreet Z.
- 1351-1371 Women, men and trees: Gender, power and property in forest and agrarian landscapes
by Rocheleau, Dianne & Edmunds, David
1997, Volume 25, Issue 7
- 1003-1007 Editorial: Poverty -- are there holes in the consensus?
by Lipton, Michael
- 1009-1028 Leading the left to the right: Populist coalitions and economic reform
by Moore, Mick
- 1029-1043 The Emergence of local capacity: Lessons from Colombia
by Fiszbein, Ariel
- 1045-1061 Pace, sequencing and credibility of structural reforms
by Bhattacharya, Rina
- 1063-1080 Substituting for the state: Institutions and industrial development in eastern Nigeria
by Brautigam, Deborah
- 1081-1093 Microfinance in Africa: Is it either the problem or the solution?
by Buckley, Graeme
- 1095-1110 Growth and barriers to growth among Nairobi's small and medium-sized garment producers
by McCormick, Dorothy & Kinyanjui, Mary Njeri & Ongile, Grace
- 1111-1125 Fitting gender into development institutions
by Razavi, Shahra
- 1127-1140 The political economy of NGOs and information sharing
by Meyer, Carrie A.
- 1141-1149 Current poverty, structural adjustment, and drought in Zimbabwe
by Marquette, Catherine M.
- 1151-1163 Population growth and agriculture in poor countries: A review of theoretical issues and empirical evidence
by Cuffaro, Nadia
- 1165-1172 Socioeconomic stratification by wealth ranking: Is it valid?
by Adams, Alayne M. & Evans, Timothy G. & Mohammed, Rafi & Farnsworth, Jennifer
- 1173-1182 Liberalizing foreign investments by pension funds: Positive and normative aspects
by Reisen, Helmut
1997, Volume 25, Issue 6
- 831-840 Editorial: Development history and its implications for development theory
by Adelman, Irma & Morris, Cynthia Taft
- 841-865 A tale of two economies: Economic restructuring in post-socialist Poland
by Kennedy, Robert E.
- 867-881 Japanese colonialism and Korean development: A critique
by Haggard, Stephan & Kang, David & Moon, Chung-In
- 883-888 Japanese colonialism and Korean development: A reply
by Kohli, Atul
- 889-904 Open economies work better! did Africa's protectionist policies cause its marginalization in world trade?
by Ng, Francis & Yeats, Alexander
- 905-914 Net and total transition costs: The timing of economic reform
by Pereira, Luiz Carlos Bresser & Abud, Jairo
- 915-930 Structural adjustment policies, income distribution and poverty: A review of the jamaican experience
by Handa, Sudhanshu & King, Damien
- 931-945 Two aid hegemons: Japanese-US interaction and aid allocation to Latin America and the Caribbean
by Katada, Saori N.
- 963-975 AIDS and economic welfare in peasant agriculture: Case studies from Kagabiro village, Kagera region, Tanzania
by Tibaijuka, Anna Kajumulo
- 977-987 Household determinants of deforestation by amerindians in honduras
by Godoy, Ricardo & O'neill, Kathleen & Groff, Stephen & Kostishack, Peter & Cubas, Adoni & Demmer, Josephien & Mcsweeney, Kendra & Overman, Johannes & Wilkie, David & Brokaw, Nicholas & Martinez, Marques
- 989-1000 Forest management practices in the Bayano region of Panama: Cultural variations
by Simmons, Cynthia S.
1997, Volume 25, Issue 5
- 627-630 Editorial: Capacity for economic research and the changing policy environment in Africa
by Ndulu, Benno J.
- 631-638 Good and bad growth: The human development reports
by Ravallion, Martin
- 639-656 Bringing water markets down to earth: The political economy of water rights in Chile, 1976-1995
by Bauer, Carl J.
- 657-680 Strategic alliances in information technology and developing country firms: Recent evidence
by Vonortas, Nicholas S. & Safioleas, Stratos P.
- 681-694 India's industrial development: An interpretative survey
by Kaplinsky, Raphael
- 695-712 Technological development in a dual economy: Alternative policy levers for economic development
by Saeed, Khalid & Prankprakma, Ponthep
- 713-725 Gender again--views of female agricultural extension officers by smallholder farmers in Tanzania
by Due, Jean M. & Magayane, Flavianus & Temu, Anna A.
- 733-734 Introduction: Markets in sub-saharan Africa
by Fafchamps, Marcel
- 735-747 Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural nonfarm labor market in Africa
by Reardon, Thomas
- 749-762 Market power, firm performance and real wage growth in Zimbabwean manufacturing
by Velenchik, Ann D.
- 763-777 Food marketing liberalization and trader entry: Evidence from Madagascar
by Barrett, Christopher B.
- 779-794 Smallholder dairying under transactions costs in East Africa
by Staal, Steven & Delgado, Christopher & Nicholson, Charles
- 795-815 Trade credit in Zimbabwean manufacturing
by Fafchamps, Marcel
- 817-830 Informal financial markets under liberalization in four African countries
by Steel, William F. & Aryeetey, Ernest & Hettige, Hemamala & Nissanke, Machiko
1997, Volume 25, Issue 4
- 469-480 Editorial: Bringing production back in -- Understanding Government's economic role in late industrialization
by Amsden, Alice H.
- 481-495 Divergent cultures? When public organizations perform well in developing countries
by Grindle, Merilee S.
- 497-517 Social welfare reform in the context of economic-political liberalization: Latin American cases
by Mesa-Lago, Carmelo
- 519-535 Exchange rate-based stabilization in Latin America
by Nazmi, Nader
- 537-547 The implications of increasing economic openness for real wages in developing countries, 1973-1990
by Paus, Eva A. & Robinson, Michael D.
- 549-562 Indigenous land rights in sub-Saharan Africa: Appropriation, security and investment demand
by Sjaastad, Espen & Bromley, Daniel W.
- 563-575 The influence of women's changing roles and status in Bangladesh's fertility transition: Evidence from a study of credit programs and contraceptive use
by Schuler, Sidney Ruth & Hashemi, Syed Mesbahuddin & Riley, Ann P.
- 577-588 On the determinants of nutrition in Mozambique: The importance of age-specific effects
by Sahn, David E. & Alderman, Harold
- 589-611 A theory of remittances as an implicit family loan arrangement
by Poirine, Bernard
- 613-626 Estimating remittance functions for Pacific Island Migrants
by Brown, Richard P. C.
1997, Volume 25, Issue 3
- 293-295 Editorial: The golden age of the keynesian consensus -- the pendulum swings back
by Singer, H. W.
- 297-310 Alternative ways to fund the International Development Association (IDA)
by Sanford, Jonathan
- 311-327 Neoliberalism and income distribution in Latin America
by Baer, Werner & Maloney, William
- 329-348 Learning from social security reforms: Two different cases, Chile and Argentina
by De Mesa, Alberto Arenas & Bertranou, Fabio
- 349-358 Program success and management of integrated primary education in developing countries
by Jain, Pankaj S.
- 359-377 Acquisition of technological capability in development: A quantitative case study of Pakistan's capital goods sector
by Romijn, Henny
- 379-394 Entry versus success in the labor force: Young women's employment in Sri Lanka
by Malhotra, Anju & DeGraff, Deborah S.
- 395-407 Impacts of growth and structural change on CO2 emissions of developing countries
by Han, Xiaoli & Chatterjee, Lata
- 409-423 Investments in african agricultural research
by Pardey, Philip G. & Roseboom, Johannes & Beintema, Nienke M.
- 425-436 Agriculture under trade policy reform: A quantitative assessment for India
by Storm, Servaas
- 437-456 Producer cooperative resettlement projects in Zimbabwe: Lessons from a failed agricultural development strategy
by Akwabi-Ameyaw, Kofi
- 457-467 Some observations on power and property rights in the inland fisheries of Bangladesh
by Toufique, Kazi Ali
1997, Volume 25, Issue 2
- 145-152 Editorial: The revival of the liberal creed -- the IMF and the World Bank in a globalized economy
by Taylor, Lance
- 153-165 Technology choice and income distribution
by James, Jeffrey & Khan, Haider
- 167-178 Central-bank decapitalization in developing economies
by Beckerman, Paul
- 179-190 Does leadership matter in the economic reform process? Liberalization and governance in Sri Lanka, 1989-1993
by Dunham, David & Kelegam, Saman
- 191-198 Carbon intensity and economic development 1962-1991: A brief exploration of the environmental Kuznets curve
by Roberts, J. Timmons & Grimes, Peter E.
- 199-210 Policing the urban pumping race: Industrial groundwater overexploitation in Indonesia
by Braadbaart, Okke & Braadbaart, Frederick
- 211-225 Achieving balance in decentralization: A case study of education decentralization in Chile
by Parry, Taryn Rounds
- 227-238 Comparing contracts: An evaluation of contract farming schemes in Africa
by Porter, Gina & Phillips-Howard[malt], Kevin
- 239-253 Willingness to contribute labor and money to tsetse control: Application of contingent valuation in Busia District, Kenya
by Echessah, Protase N. & Swallow, Brent M. & Kamara, Damaris W. & Curry, John J.
- 255-266 When households run out of fuel: Responses of rural households to decreasing fuelwood availability, Ntcheu District, Malawi
by Brouwer, Inge D. & Hoorweg, Jan C. & van Liere, Marti J.
- 267-280 Why institutional credit agencies are reluctant to lend to the rural poor: A theoretical analysis of the Indian rural credit market
by Basu, Santonu
- 281-291 Effective protection and investment incentives in Egypt and Jordan during the transition to free trade With Europe
by Hoekman, Bernard & Djankov, Simeon
1997, Volume 25, Issue 1
- 1-3 An introduction to a primer for reform-minded Presidents or Prime Ministers
by Streeten, Paul
- 5-22 Shifting fortunes: The political economy of financial liberalization in Nigeria
by Lewis, Peter & Stein, Howard
- 23-52 Gender, environment, and poverty interlinks: Regional variations and temporal shifts in rural India, 1971-1991
by Agarwal, Bina
- 53-65 The paths to rain forest destruction: Crossnational patterns of tropical deforestation, 1975-1990
by Rudel, Tom & Roper, Jill
- 67-91 Settler households and land-use patterns in the Amazon frontier: Farm-level evidence from Ecuador
by Pichon, Francisco J.
- 93-114 The frontiers of influence: NGO lobbying at the 1974 World Food Conference, the 1992 Earth Summit and beyond
by Van Rooy, Alison
- 115-126 Stakeholders, science and decision making for poverty-focused rural mechanization research and development
by Gass, Graham & Biggs, Stephen & Kelly, Aiden
- 127-143 Should the Kuznets effect be relied on to induce equalizing growth: Evidence from post-1950 development
by Bowman, Kirk S.
1996, Volume 24, Issue 12
- 1793-1809 Women's autonomy and its impact on fertility
by Abadian, Sousan
- 1811-1827 Women-headed households and household welfare: An empirical deconstruction for Uganda
by Appleton, Simon
- 1829-1840 Women "manufacture" economic spaces in Bethlehem
by Olmsted, Jennifer
- 1841-1857 Child survival in East Africa: The impact of preventive health care
by Brockerhoff, Martin & Derose, Laurie F.
- 1859-1877 The Triple C approach to local industrial policy
by Humphrey, John & Schmitz, Hubert
- 1879-1890 Mighty oaks from little acorns: Can microenterprise serve as the seedbed of industrialization?
by Grosh, Barbara & Somolekae, Gloria