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The Creative Class, Bohemians and Local Labor Market Performance: A Micro-data Panel Study for Germany 1975-2004

  • Möller, Joachim
  • Tubadji, Annie

The paper aims at testing Florida's concept of the Creative Class using panel data for 323 West German regions for the time period 1975 – 2004. Applying a dynamic system approach based on GMM, we find that the local concentration of the Creative Class has predictive power for the economic development of a region and tends to outperform traditional indicators of human capital. However, our results do not support Florida's assertion that the creative workers flock where the Bohemians are. According to our findings, the Creative Class is attracted by favorable economic conditions as indicated by employment growth or an increasing wage bill.

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Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 08-135.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:7525
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  1. Simon, Curtis J., 1998. "Human Capital and Metropolitan Employment Growth," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 223-243, March.
  2. M. Ruth & K. Donaghy & P. Kirshen, 2006. "Introduction," Chapters, in: Regional Climate Change and Variability, chapter 1 Edward Elgar.
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  6. Blien, Uwe & Suedekum, Jens & Wolf, Katja, 2005. "Local Employment Growth in West Germany: A Dynamic Panel Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 1723, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  9. James Heilbrun, 1996. "Growth, accessibility and the distribution of arts activity in the United States: 1980 to 1990," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 283-296, December.
  10. Richard Florida & Zoltan Acs & Sam Youl Lee, 2004. "Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis of New Firm Formation," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-17, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  11. Ann Markusen, 2006. "Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 38(10), pages 1921-1940, October.
  12. Joachim Möller & Alisher Aldashev, 2007. "Wage Inequality, Reservation Wages and Labor Market Participation," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 30(2), pages 120-151, April.
  13. Rauch James E., 1993. "Productivity Gains from Geographic Concentration of Human Capital: Evidence from the Cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 380-400, November.
  14. Nathan, Max, 2007. "The Wrong Stuff? Creative Class Theory and Economic Performance in UK Cities," MPRA Paper 29486, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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  16. David Mcgranahan & Timothy Wojan, 2007. "Recasting the Creative Class to Examine Growth Processes in Rural and Urban Counties," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(2), pages 197-216.
  17. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
  18. Mellander, Charlotta & Florida, Richard, 2007. "The Creative Class or Human Capital? - explaining regional development in Sweden," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 79, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  19. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
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  22. Fritsch, Michael & Stützer, Michael, 2008. "The Geography of Creative People in Germany," MPRA Paper 21965, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  23. Ron A. Boschma & Michael Fritsch, 2007. "Creative Class and Regional Growth - Empirical Evidence from Eight European Countries," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-066, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  24. Richard Florida, 2002. "Bohemia and economic geography," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(1), pages 55-71, January.
  25. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
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  27. Steve Bond, 2002. "Dynamic panel data models: a guide to microdata methods and practice," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/02, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
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