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Creative Class and Regional Growth - Empirical Evidence from Eight European Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Ron A. Boschma

    () (Utrecht University, Department of Economic Geography, Utrecht, Netherlands)

  • Michael Fritsch

    () (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, German Institute of Economic Research, Berlin, and Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany)

Abstract

We analyze the regional distribution and the effect of people in creative occupations based on data for more than 450 regions in eight European countries. The geographic distribution of the creative class is highly uneven. The creative class is not attracted to highly urbanized regions per se, but rather a climate of tolerance and openness seem to be rather important factors. We find that the creative class has a positive and significant effect on employment growth and new business formation at the regional level. Human capital as measured by creative occupation outperforms indicators that are based on formal education.

Suggested Citation

  • Ron A. Boschma & Michael Fritsch, 2007. "Creative Class and Regional Growth - Empirical Evidence from Eight European Countries," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-066, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
  • Handle: RePEc:jrp:jrpwrp:2007-066
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Richard Florida, 2002. "Bohemia and economic geography," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(1), pages 55-71, January.
    2. Michael Fritsch, 2004. "Entrepreneurship, entry and performance of new business compared in two growth regimes: East and West Germany," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 14(5), pages 525-542, December.
    3. Michael Fritsch, 2007. "The Geography and the Effect of Creative People in Germany," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-001, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    4. Jamie Peck, 2005. "Struggling with the Creative Class," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(4), pages 740-770, December.
    5. G.A. Marlet & C. van Woerkens, 2004. "Skills and Creativity in a Cross-section of Dutch Cities," Working Papers 04-29, Utrecht School of Economics.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Rik Wenting & Oedzge Atzema & Koen Frenken, 2008. "Urban Amenities or Agglomeration Economies? Locational Behaviour and Entrepreneurial Success of Dutch Fashion Designers," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 0803, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Jan 2008.
    2. Niclas Berggren & Therese Nilsson, 2013. "Does Economic Freedom Foster Tolerance?," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(2), pages 177-207, May.
    3. Aurora A.C. Teixeira & Rosa Portela Forte, 2009. "Unbounding entrepreneurial intents of university students: a multidisciplinary perspective," FEP Working Papers 322, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    4. Fritsch, Michael & Stützer, Michael, 2008. "The Geography of Creative People in Germany," MPRA Paper 21965, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Sara Santos Cruz & Aurora A.C. Teixeira, 2012. "Methodological approaches for measuring the creative employment: a critical appraisal with an application to Portugal," FEP Working Papers 455, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    6. Annie Tubadji & Brian Osoba & Peter Nijkamp, 2015. "Culture-based development in the USA: culture as a factor for economic welfare and social well-being at a county level," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer;The Association for Cultural Economics International, vol. 39(3), pages 277-303, August.
    7. Niclas Berggren & Mikael Elinder, 2012. "Is tolerance good or bad for growth?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 150(1), pages 283-308, January.
    8. Jan Wedemeier, 2011. "Creative professionals and high-skilled agents': Polarization of employment growth?," ERSA conference papers ersa11p489, European Regional Science Association.
    9. Amnon Frenkel & Sigal Kaplan, 2015. "The joint choice of tenure, dwelling type, size and location: the effect of home-oriented versus culture-oriented lifestyle," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 233-251, November.
    10. Maria Kola-Bezka, 2011. "Creativity As A Factor For Socio-Economic Development Of Polish Regions," Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, Institute of Economic Research, vol. 6(1), pages 71-84, March.
    11. Niels Bosma & R. Sternberg & Zoltan Acs, 2008. "The Entrepreneurial Advantage of World Cities," Scales Research Reports H200810, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    12. Björn Frank, 2008. "Location decisions in a changing labour market environment," Review of Regional Research: Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft, Springer;Gesellschaft für Regionalforschung (GfR), vol. 28(1), pages 31-42, February.
    13. Carlos Iglesias Fernández & Raquel Llorente Heras & Diego Dueñas Fernández, 2011. "La movilidad international de los doctores españoles: ¿cuáles son sus determinantes?," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 6,in: Antonio Caparrós Ruiz (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 6, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 37, pages 593-611 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
    14. Thomas Krauskopf & Björn Bünger & Martin Langen, "undated". "Cultural Infrastructure and Regional Economic Well-Being in Germany - Are we creative yet?," Working Papers 200101, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
    15. Möller Joachim & Tubadji Annie, 2009. "The Creative Class, Bohemians and Local Labor Market Performance: A Micro-data Panel Study for Germany 1975–2004," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 229(2-3), pages 270-291, April.
    16. Krauskopf, Thomas & Bünger, Björn & Langen, Martin, 2010. "Cultural infrastructure and regional economic well-being in Germany: Are we creative yet?," CAWM Discussion Papers 30, University of Münster, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM).
    17. Annie Tubadji & Peter Nijkamp, 2013. "Cultural Distance and Gravity Effects among Migrants," ERSA conference papers ersa13p484, European Regional Science Association.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Creativity; innovation; entrepreneurship; regional development;

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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