Informal networking: An overview of the literature and an agenda for future research
Informal inter-organizational networks provide manifold opportunities to organize the transfer of information, knowledge and technology between actors. Given their potential and their importance, the lack of theoretical discussion and empirical research on informal networks and their dynamics is surprising. The objective of this paper is twofold. It attempts to review the fragmented academic discussion of the notion of informal networking, thereby focusing on how these relationships emerge initially and what conditions (presumably) are required to make them a mutually fruitful and sustainable channel of the transfer of information and knowledge. On that groundwork, the most important empirical studies which try to confirm and disentangle the aforementioned basic mechanisms of informal exchange relationships are reviewed. Finally, we outline an agenda of future research directions that we encourage researchers to pursue in future empirical studies. Five important research gaps can be identified.
|Date of creation:||2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.bw.fh-jena.de/Email: |
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang & Krähmer, Christian, 2007. "Regionale Nachfrageeffekte der Hochschulen - methodische Probleme und Ergebnisse empirischer Untersuchungen für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland," Jena Contributions to Economic Research 2007,6, University of Applied Sciences Jena, Department of Business Administration.
- Paul Almeida & Bruce Kogut, 1999. "Localization of Knowledge and the Mobility of Engineers in Regional Networks," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(7), pages 905-917, July.
- Kranton, Rachel E, 1996. "Reciprocal Exchange: A Self-Sustaining System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(4), pages 830-51, September.
- Grimpe, Christoph & Hussinger, Katrin, 2008. "Formal and Informal Technology Transfer from Academia to Industry: Complementarity Effects and Innovation Performance," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-080, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Mark Granovetter, 2005. "The Impact of Social Structure on Economic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 33-50, Winter.
- Gerlach, Andrea & Sauer, Thomas & Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang, 2005. "Formen und regionale Verteilung des Wissenstransfers von Hochschulen: Eine repräsentative Fallstudie für Jena," Jena Contributions to Economic Research 2005,1, University of Applied Sciences Jena, Department of Business Administration.
- Allen, Robert C., 1983. "Collective invention," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 1-24, March.
- Jerry Thursby & Anne Fuller & Marie Thursby, 2007.
"US Faculty Patenting: Inside and Outside the University,"
NBER Working Papers
13256, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Thursby, Jerry & Fuller, Anne W. & Thursby, Marie, 2009. "US faculty patenting: Inside and outside the university," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 14-25, February.
- Markman, Gideon D. & Phan, Phillip H. & Balkin, David B. & Gianiodis, Peter T., 2005. "Entrepreneurship and university-based technology transfer," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 241-263, March.
- Jaffe, Adam B & Trajtenberg, Manuel & Henderson, Rebecca, 1993.
"Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 108(3), pages 577-98, August.
- Jaffe, A.B. & Trajtenberg, M., 1992. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," Papers 14-92, Tel Aviv.
- Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Rebecca Henderson, 1992. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," NBER Working Papers 3993, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Anselin, Luc & Varga, Attila & Acs, Zoltan, 1997. "Local Geographic Spillovers between University Research and High Technology Innovations," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 422-448, November.
- Edward L. Glaeser & David Laibson & Bruce Sacerdote, 2002. "An Economic Approach to Social Capital," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(483), pages 437-458, November.
- Gamal Atallah, 2004. "Indirect information exchange," Netnomics, Springer, vol. 6(2), pages 119-151, October.
- Jensen, Morten Berg & Johnson, Bjorn & Lorenz, Edward & Lundvall, Bengt Ake, 2007. "Forms of knowledge and modes of innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 680-693, June.
- Freeman, C., 1991. "Networks of innovators: A synthesis of research issues," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 499-514, October.
- von Hippel, Eric, 1987. "Cooperation between rivals: Informal know-how trading," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 291-302, December.
- Linda Datcher Loury, 2006. "Some Contacts Are More Equal than Others: Informal Networks, Job Tenure, and Wages," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(2), pages 299-318, April.
- Grimpe, Christoph & Fier, Heide, 2009.
"Informal university technology transfer: a comparison between the United States and Germany,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
09-033, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Christoph Grimpe & Heide Fier, 2010. "Informal university technology transfer: a comparison between the United States and Germany," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(6), pages 637-650, December.
- Mustar, Philippe & Renault, Marie & Colombo, Massimo G. & Piva, Evila & Fontes, Margarida & Lockett, Andy & Wright, Mike & Clarysse, Bart & Moray, Nathalie, 2006. "Conceptualising the heterogeneity of research-based spin-offs: A multi-dimensional taxonomy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 289-308, March.
- Andreas Pyka & Uwe Cantner, 1999. "Informal Networking and Industrial Life Cycles," Discussion Paper Series 181, Universitaet Augsburg, Institute for Economics.
- Bonte, Werner & Keilbach, Max, 2005.
"Concubinage or marriage? Informal and formal cooperations for innovation,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 23(3-4), pages 279-302, April.
- Keilbach, Max & Bönte, Werner, 2004. "Concubinage or Marriage? Informal and Formal Cooperations for Innovation," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-11, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Breschi, Stefano & Lissoni, Francesco, 2000.
"Knowledge Spillovers And Local Innovation Systems: A Critical Survey,"
ERSA conference papers
ersa00p362, European Regional Science Association.
- Breschi, Stefano & Lissoni, Francesco, 2001. "Knowledge Spillovers and Local Innovation Systems: A Critical Survey," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 975-1005, December.
- Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni, 2001. "Knowledge spillovers and local innovation systems: a critical survey," LIUC Papers in Economics 84, Cattaneo University (LIUC).
- Sattler, Henrik & Schrader, Stephan & Lüthje, Christian, 2003. "Informal cooperation in the US and Germany: cooperative managerial capitalism vs. competitive managerial capitalism in interfirm information trading," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 273-295, June.
- Clarysse, Bart & Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy & Van de Velde, Els & Vohora, Ajay, 2005.
"Spinning out new ventures: a typology of incubation strategies from European research institutions,"
Journal of Business Venturing,
Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 183-216, March.
- B. Clarysse & M. Wright & A. Lockett & E. Van De Velde & A. Vohora, 2004. "Spinning Out New Ventures: A Typology Of Incubation Strategies From European Research Institutions," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 04/228, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
- Bengt-Åke Lundvall, 1996. "The Social Dimension of the Learning Economy," DRUID Working Papers 96-1, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
- Chen, Liang-Chih, 2009. "Learning through informal local and global linkages: The case of Taiwan's machine tool industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 527-535, April.
- Soete, Luc & Verspagen, Bart & Weel, Bas ter, 2009.
"Systems of Innovation,"
MERIT Working Papers
062, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
- Datcher, Linda, 1983. "The Impact of Informal Networks of Quit Behavior," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 491-95, August.
- Mansfield, Edwin, 1985. "How Rapidly Does New Industrial Technology Leak Out?," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(2), pages 217-23, December.
- Sauer, Thomas & Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang & Gerlach, Andrea, 2007. "Forms and regional distribution of knowledge transfer by German universities," Jena Contributions to Economic Research 2007,3, University of Applied Sciences Jena, Department of Business Administration.
- Janowicz-Panjaitan, Martyna & Noorderhaven, Niels G., 2008. "Formal and informal interorganizational learning within strategic alliances," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1337-1355, September.
- Dahl, Michael S. & Pedersen, Christian O.R., 2004. "Knowledge flows through informal contacts in industrial clusters: myth or reality?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1673-1686, December.
- Elisa Giuliani, 2007. "Towards an understanding of knowledge spillovers in industrial clusters," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 87-90.
- Schrader, Stephan, 1991. "Informal technology transfer between firms: Cooperation through information trading," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 153-170, April.
- Harhoff, Dietmar & Henkel, Joachim & von Hippel, Eric, 2003. "Profiting from voluntary information spillovers: how users benefit by freely revealing their innovations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 1753-1769, December.
- Schwartz, Michael, 2006. "Die Learning Economy aus Netzwerkperspektive: Mechanismen und Probleme," Jena Contributions to Economic Research 2006,4, University of Applied Sciences Jena, Department of Business Administration.
- Sauer, Thomas & Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang & Gerlach, Andrea, 2007. "Spatial localization of knowledge-transfer channels and face-to-face contacts: A survey of the Jena university-industry linkages," Jena Contributions to Economic Research 2007,4, University of Applied Sciences Jena, Department of Business Administration.
- Carter, Anne P., 1989. "Knowhow trading as economic exchange," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 155-163, June.
- Gernot Grabher & Oliver Ibert, 2006. "Bad company? The ambiguity of personal knowledge networks," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(3), pages 251-271, June.
- Albert N. Link & Donald S. Siegel & Barry Bozeman, 2007.
"An empirical analysis of the propensity of academics to engage in informal university technology transfer ,"
Industrial and Corporate Change,
Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 641-655, August.
- Albert N. Link & Donald S. Siegel & Barry Bozeman, 2006. "An Empirical Analysis of the Propensity of Academics to Engage in Informal University Technology Transfer," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0610, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
- Bozeman, Barry, 2000. "Technology transfer and public policy: a review of research and theory," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 627-655, April.
- Rank, Olaf N., 2008. "Formal structures and informal networks: Structural analysis in organizations," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 145-161, June.
- Joel Sobel, 2002. "Can We Trust Social Capital?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(1), pages 139-154, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:fhjbwf:20101. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.