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Systemic Risk, Sovereign Yields and Bank Exposures in the Euro Crisis

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Since 2008, euro-area sovereign yields have diverged sharply, and so have the corresponding CDS premia. At the same time, banks’ sovereign debt portfolios featured an increasing home bias. We investigate the relationship between these two facts, and its rationale. First, we inquire to what extent the dynamics of sovereign yield differentials relative to the swap rate and CDS premia reflect changes in perceived sovereign solvency risk or rather different responses to systemic risk due to the possible collapse of the euro. We do so by decomposing yield differentials and CDS spreads in a country-specific and a common risk component via a dynamic factor model. We then investigate how the home bias of banks’ sovereign portfolios responds to yield differentials and to their two components, by estimating a vector error-correction model on 2008-12 monthly data. We find that in most countries of the euro area, and especially in its periphery, banks’ sovereign exposures respond positively to increases in yields. When bank exposures are related to the country-risk and common-risk components of yields, it turns out that (i) in the periphery, banks increase their domestic exposure in response to increases in country risk, while in core countries they do not; (ii) in most euro area banks respond to an increase in the common risk factor by raising their domestic exposures. Finding (i) hints at distorted incentives in periphery banks’ response to changes in their own sovereign’s risk. Finding (ii) indicates that, when systemic risk increases, all banks tend to increase the home bias of their portfolios, making the euro-area sovereign market more segmented.

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  • Niccolò Battistini & Marco Pagano & Saverio Simonelli, 2013. "Systemic Risk, Sovereign Yields and Bank Exposures in the Euro Crisis," CSEF Working Papers 345, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  • Handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:345
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    Cited by:

    1. Horváth, Bálint & Huizinga, Harry & Ioannidou, Vasso, 2015. "Determinants and Valuation Effects of the Home Bias in European Banks' Sovereign Debt Portfolios," CEPR Discussion Papers 10661, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Van Rijckeghem, Caroline & Weder di Mauro, Beatrice, 2014. "Deglobalization of Banking: The World is Getting Smaller," CEPR Discussion Papers 10139, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Sam Langfield & Marco Pagano & Ricardo Reis & Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh & Dimitri Vayanos, 2017. "ESBies: safety in the tranches," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 32(90), pages 175-219.
    4. Marco Pagano, 2014. "Dealing with Financial Crises: How Much Help from Research?," CSEF Working Papers 361, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    5. Zaghini, Andrea, 2019. "The CSPP at work: Yield heterogeneity and the portfolio rebalancing channel," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 282-297.
    6. Marco Pagano, 2014. "Lessons from the European Financial Crisis," CSEF Working Papers 370, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    7. Steven Ongena & Alexander Popov & Neeltje Van Horen, 2019. "The Invisible Hand of the Government: Moral Suasion during the European Sovereign Debt Crisis," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 11(4), pages 346-379, October.
    8. Fornari, Fabio & Zaghini, Andrea, 2021. "It's not time to make a change: Sovereign fragility and the corporate credit risk," CFS Working Paper Series 652, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    9. Zaghini, Andrea, 2016. "Fragmentation and heterogeneity in the euro-area corporate bond market: Back to normal?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 51-61.
    10. A. Colangelo & D. Giannone & M. Lenza & H. Pill & L. Reichlin, 2017. "The national segmentation of euro area bank balance sheets during the financial crisis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 53(1), pages 247-265, August.
    11. Buch, Claudia M. & Koetter, Michael & Ohls, Jana, 2016. "Banks and sovereign risk: A granular view," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 1-15.
    12. Emmanuel Farhi & Jean Tirole, 2018. "Deadly Embrace: Sovereign and Financial Balance Sheets Doom Loops," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 85(3), pages 1781-1823.
    13. Gómez-Puig, Marta & Sosvilla-Rivero, Simón & Ramos-Herrera, María del Carmen, 2014. "An update on EMU sovereign yield spread drivers in times of crisis: A panel data analysis," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 133-153.
    14. Roudari, Soheil & Salmani, Yunes, 2020. "Macroeconomic Effects of Government Debt to Banks in Iran," Journal of Money and Economy, Monetary and Banking Research Institute, Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, vol. 15(4), pages 403-422, October.
    15. Susanna Saroyan & Lilit Popoyan, 2017. "Bank-sovereign ties against interbank market integration: the case of the Italian segment," LEM Papers Series 2017/02, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    16. Bordo, M.D. & Meissner, C.M., 2016. "Fiscal and Financial Crises," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & Harald Uhlig (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 355-412, Elsevier.
    17. Michaelides, Alexander, 2014. "What Happened in Cyprus?," CEPR Discussion Papers 9993, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. Beetsma, Roel & de Jong, Frank & Giuliodori, Massimo & Hanson, Jesper, 2016. "Domestic and Cross-Border Auction Cycle Effects of Sovereign Bond Issuance in the Euro Area," CEPR Discussion Papers 11122, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    19. Marta Gómez-Puig & Simón Sosvilla-Rivero, 2014. "EMU sovereign debt market crisis: Fundamentals-based or pure contagion?," Working Papers 14-08, Asociación Española de Economía y Finanzas Internacionales.
    20. Ohls, Jana, 2017. "Moral suasion in regional government bond markets," Discussion Papers 33/2017, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    21. Emanuele Bacchiocchi & Catalin Dragomirescu-Gaina, 2021. "Uncertainty spill-overs: when policy and financial realms overlap," Papers 2102.06404, arXiv.org.
    22. Snezana Eminidou & Martin Geiger & Marios Zachariadis, 2021. "Public Debt and state-dependent Effects of Fiscal Policy in the Euro Area," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 03-2021, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
    23. Emmanuel Farhi & Jean Tirole, 2018. "Deadly embrace: sovereign and financial balance sheets doom loops," Post-Print hal-03270310, HAL.
    24. Orkun Saka, 2017. "Domestic banks as lightning rods? Home bias during the Eurozone crisis," LEQS – LSE 'Europe in Question' Discussion Paper Series 122, European Institute, LSE.
    25. Michele Fratianni & Francesco Marchionne, 2015. "De-leveraging, de-risking and moral suasion in the banking sector," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 103, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    sovereign yield differentials; dynamic latent factor model; home bias; vector error-correction model;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation
    • C58 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Financial Econometrics
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

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