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Determinants of Financial Inclusion in Africa: A Dynamic Panel Data Approach


  • Evans, Olaniyi


This study documents the determinants of financial inclusion in Africa for the period 2005 to 2014, using the dynamic panel data approach. The study finds that per capita income, broad money (% of GDP), literacy, internet access and Islamic banking presence and activity are significant factors explaining the level of financial inclusion in Africa. Domestic credit provided by financial sector (% of GDP), deposit interest rates, inflation and population have insignificant impacts on financial inclusion. The findings of this study are of utmost value to African central banks, policymakers and commercial bankers as they advance innovative approaches to enhance the involvement of excluded poor people in formal finance in Africa.

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  • Evans, Olaniyi, 2016. "Determinants of Financial Inclusion in Africa: A Dynamic Panel Data Approach," MPRA Paper 81326, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:81326

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    2. Evans Olaniyi, 2017. "Back to the Land: The Impact of Financial Inclusion on Agriculture in Nigeria," Iranian Economic Review (IER), Faculty of Economics,University of Tehran.Tehran,Iran, vol. 21(4), pages 885-903, Autumn.
    3. Evans, Olaniyi, 2022. "Social and institutional determinants of digital financial inclusion in Africa: A system GMM Approach," MPRA Paper 117006, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. David Damiyano & Stephen Mago, 2023. "An Analysis of the Impact of Financial Inclusion on Poverty and Development: Case of SACU Countries," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 13(6), pages 141-147, November.
    5. Meshesha Demie Jima & Patricia Lindelwa Makoni, 2023. "Causality between Financial Inclusion, Financial Stability and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(2), pages 1-13, January.
    6. Md Abdullah Omar & Kazuo Inaba, 2020. "Does financial inclusion reduce poverty and income inequality in developing countries? A panel data analysis," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 9(1), pages 1-25, December.
    7. Ichraf Ouechtati, 2020. "The Contribution of Financial Inclusion in Reducing Poverty and Income Inequality in Developing Countries," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 10(9), pages 1051-1061, September.
    8. Rahima Benaini & Samiya Metair, "undated". "Determinants of financial inclusion in Algeria: An ARDL Bounds Test approach," Review of Socio - Economic Perspectives 202219, Reviewsep.
    9. Evans, Olaniyi, 2018. "Blockchain Technology and the Financial Market: An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 99212, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Meshesha Demie Jima & Patricia Lindelwa Makoni, 2023. "Financial Inclusion and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa—A Panel ARDL and Granger Non-Causality Approach," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 16(6), pages 1-16, June.
    11. Mohamed Samy ElDeeb & Yasser Tawfik Halim & Esmat Mostafa Kamel, 2021. "The pillars determining financial inclusion among SMEs in Egypt: service awareness, access and usage metrics and macroeconomic policies," Future Business Journal, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 1-19, December.
    12. Adella Siti Nursaliyawati & Siskarossa Ika Oktora, 2022. "Simultaneous Relationship between Financial Inclusion, Economic Growth, and Income Inequality in Sulawesi Island, 2011–2019," Economics and Finance in Indonesia, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Indonesia, vol. 68, pages 132-148, Desember.
    13. Driss Tsouli, 2022. "Financial Inclusion, Poverty, and Income Inequality: Evidence from High, Middle, and Low-income Countries," Scientific Annals of Economics and Business (continues Analele Stiintifice), Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 69(1), pages 69-98, March.
    14. Thanh Tam Le & Nguyen Dieu Linh Dang & Thi Dieu Thu Nguyen & Thanh Son Vu & Manh Dung Tran, 2019. "Determinants of Financial Inclusion: Comparative Study of Asian Countries," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 9(10), pages 1107-1123, October.
    15. Beza Muche Teka & Simon Nahusenay & Taddess Asmare, 2020. "Determinants of Financial Inclusion in East Gojjam, Ethiopia," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 10(4), pages 1-4.
    16. Nur Diniey Ezzati Zainorin & Syuhada Jalaludin & Nor Farradila Abdul Aziz & Balachandran Balasingam, 2023. "Determinants of Financial Inclusion in OIC Countries," Information Management and Business Review, AMH International, vol. 15(2), pages 9-16.
    17. Uwem E. Uwah & Joseph O. Udoayang & Peter A. Uklala, 2022. "Post COVID-19 and the Acceptance of Financial Inclusion as a New Normal in Financial Transactions: Implications for Nigerian Accountants and Other Financial Service Providers," Athens Journal of Business & Economics, Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), vol. 8(3), pages 193-214, July.
    18. María del Carmen Valls Martínez & Pedro Antonio Martín-Cervantes & Sandra Peña Rodríguez, 2021. "Ethical Banking and Poverty Alleviation Banking: The Two Sides of the Same Solidary Coin," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(21), pages 1-22, October.
    19. Adeola, Ogechi & Evans, Olaniyi & Hilson, Ebo, 2018. "Tourism and economic wellbeing in Africa," MPRA Paper 93685, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Anh L.N. Ngo, 2019. "Index of Financial Inclusion and the Determinants: An Investigation in Asia," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 9(12), pages 1368-1382, December.
    21. Aishwarya Nagpal & Megha Jain & Abhay Jain, 2020. "Determining the role of digital technology, governance and institutions in advancing financial inclusion in BRICS nations using probit regression analysis," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 22(2), pages 443-459, December.
    22. Shrabani Mukherjee & Keshav Sood, 2020. "Triggers and Barriers of Financial Inclusion: A Country-Wise Analysis," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 10(9), pages 970-988, September.

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    More about this item


    Financial inclusion; finance; dynamic panel data; Africa;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements

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