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New financial development indicators: with a critical contribution to inequality empirics

The employment of financial development indicators without due consideration to country/regional specific financial development realities remains an issue of substantial policy relevance. Financial depth in the perspective of money supply is not equal to liquid liabilities in every development context. This paper introduces complementary indicators to the existing Financial Development and Structure Database (FDSD). Dynamic panel system GMM estimations are applied. Different specifications, non-overlapping intervals and control variables are used to check the consistency of estimated coefficients. Our results suggest that from an absolute standpoint (GDP base measures), all financial sectors are pro-poor. However, three interesting findings are drawn from measures of sector importance. (1) The expansion of the formal financial sector to the detriment of other financial sectors has a disequalizing income effect. (2) Growth of informal and semi-formal financial sectors at the expense of the formal financial sector has an income equalizing effect. (3) The positive income redistributive effect of semi-formal finance in financial sector competition is higher than the corresponding impact of informal finance. It unites two streams of research by contributing at the same time to the macroeconomic literature on measuring financial development and responding to the growing field of economic development by means of informal financial sector promotion and microfinance. The paper suggests a practicable way to disentangle the effects of the various financial sectors on economic development. The equation of financial depth in the perspective of money supply to liquid liabilities has put on the margin the burgeoning informal financial sector in developing countries. The phenomenon of mobile banking is such an example.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 56806.

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Date of creation: 15 Sep 2013
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:56806
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  1. Asongu, Simplice A, 2013. "How do financial reforms affect inequality through financial sector competition? Evidence from Africa," MPRA Paper 44410, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Asongu Simplice, 2012. "Financial sector competition and knowledge economy: evidence from SSA and MENA countries," Working Papers 12/021, African Governance and Development Institute..
  3. Banerjee, Abhijit V & Newman, Andrew F, 1993. "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 274-98, April.
  4. Hassan, M. Kabir & Sanchez, Benito & Yu, Jung-Suk, 2011. "Financial development and economic growth: New evidence from panel data," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 88-104, February.
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  6. Stefania Albanesi, . "Inflation and Inequality," Working Papers 199, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  7. Simplice A., Asongu, 2011. "Investment and inequality in Africa: which financial channels are good for the poor?," MPRA Paper 34990, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  8. Ang, James B. & McKibbin, Warwick J., 2007. "Financial liberalization, financial sector development and growth: Evidence from Malaysia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 215-233, September.
  9. Asongu Simplice, 2012. "Harmonizing IPRs on Software Piracy: Empirics of Trajectories in Africa," Working Papers 12/025, African Governance and Development Institute..
  10. Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  11. King, Robert G & Levine, Ross, 1993. "Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 108(3), pages 717-37, August.
  12. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 2013. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Working Papers 2013-12, Brown University, Department of Economics.
  13. Michael Enowbi-Batuo & Mlambo Kupukile, 2010. "How can economic and political liberalisation improve financial development in African countries?," Journal of Financial Economic Policy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 2(1), pages 35-59, May.
  14. Demetriades, Panicos O. & Hussein, Khaled A., 1996. "Does financial development cause economic growth? Time-series evidence from 16 countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 387-411, December.
  15. Asongu, Simplice, 2013. "Mobile banking and mobile phone penetration: which is more pro-poor in Africa?," MPRA Paper 56800, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  16. Asongu, Simplice A, 2013. "Liberalization and financial sector competition: a critical contribution to the empirics with an African assessment," MPRA Paper 52212, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  17. Asongu, Simplice A., 2013. "How do institutions matter in the income-equalizing effect of mobile phone penetration?," European Economic Letters, European Economics Letters Group, vol. 2(2), pages 56-61.
  18. Hisako KAI & Shigeyuki HAMORI, 2009. "Globalization, Financial Depth, and Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa," Discussion Papers 0912, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University.
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  26. repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125426 is not listed on IDEAS
  27. Gries, Thomas & Kraft, Manfred & Meierrieks, Daniel, 2009. "Linkages Between Financial Deepening, Trade Openness, and Economic Development: Causality Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 1849-1860, December.
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  29. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
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  31. Kumbhakar, Subal C. & Mavrotas, George, 2005. "Financial Sector Development and Productivity Growth," Working Paper Series RP2005/68, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
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