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How do financial reforms affect inequality through financial sector competition? Evidence from Africa

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  • Simplice A Asongu

    (African Governance and Development Institute)

Abstract

In the first empirical study on how financial reforms have been instrumental in mitigating inequality through financial sector competition, we contribute at the same time to the macroeconomic literature on measuring financial development and respond to the growing field of economic development by means of informal sector promotion. Hitherto, unexplored financial sector concepts of formalization, semi-formalization and informalization are introduced. Four main findings are established: (1) while formal financial development decreases inequality, financial sector formalization increases it; (2) whereas semi-formal financial development increases inequality, the effect of financial semi-formalization is unclear; (3) both informal financial development and financial informalization have an income equalizing effect and; (4) non-formal financial development is pro-poor. Policy implications are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Simplice A Asongu, 2013. "How do financial reforms affect inequality through financial sector competition? Evidence from Africa," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(1), pages 401-414.
  • Handle: RePEc:ebl:ecbull:eb-13-00001
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Simplice A. Asongu, 2013. "Investment And Inequality In Africa: Which Financial Channels Are Good For The Poor?," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 15(2), pages 43-65.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu, 2013. "How has Mobile Phone Penetration Stimulated Financial Development in Africa?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 7-18, April.
    3. Hisako Kai & Shigeyuki Hamori, 2009. "Globalization, financial depth, and inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(3), pages 2025-2037.
    4. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 1993. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(1), pages 35-52.
    5. Simplice Asongu, 2015. "Financial Sector Competition and Knowledge Economy: Evidence from SSA and MENA Countries," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 6(4), pages 717-748, December.
    6. Simplice A, Asongu, 2012. "How has mobile banking stimulated financial development in Africa?," MPRA Paper 38576, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Banerjee, Abhijit V & Newman, Andrew F, 1993. "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 274-298, April.
    8. Enowbi Batuo, Michael & Guidi, Francesco & Mlambo, Kupukile, 2010. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: Evidence from African Countries," MPRA Paper 25658, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Mr. Magnus Saxegaard, 2006. "Excess Liquidity and Effectiveness of Monetary Policy: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 2006/115, International Monetary Fund.
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    Cited by:

    1. Simplice A Asongu, 2014. "On the substitution of institutions and finance in investment," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(3), pages 1557-1574.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2018. "Recent finance advances in information technology for inclusive development: a systematic review," Netnomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 65-93, October.
    3. Simplice A, Asongu, 2011. "Finance and growth: Schumpeter might be wrong in our era. New evidence from Meta-analysis," MPRA Paper 32559, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Feb 2013.
    4. Simplice Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Gilbert A. A. Aminkeng, 2014. "China’s Strategies in Economic Diplomacy: A Survey of Updated Lessons for Africa, the West and China," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 14/036, African Governance and Development Institute..
    5. Simplice Asongu, 2015. "Liberalisation and Financial Sector Competition: A Critical Contribution to the Empirics with an African Assessment," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 83(3), pages 425-451, September.
    6. Asongu, Simplice, 2013. "Mobile banking and mobile phone penetration: which is more pro-poor in Africa?," MPRA Paper 56800, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Batuo, Michael & Mlambo, Kupukile & Asongu, Simplice, 2018. "Linkages between financial development, financial instability, financial liberalisation and economic growth in Africa," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 168-179.
    8. Simplice A. Asongu & Gilbert A.A. Aminkeng, 2013. "The economic consequences of China--Africa relations: debunking myths in the debate," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(4), pages 261-277, November.
    9. Asongu, Simplice, 2014. "Reinventing foreign aid for inclusive and sustainable development: a survey," MPRA Paper 65300, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Simplice A. Asongu & Lieven De Moor, 2015. "Recent advances in finance for inclusive development: a survey," Research Africa Network Working Papers 15/005, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    11. Simplice A. Asongu, 2015. "Finance and growth: new evidence from meta-analysis," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(6), pages 615-639, June.
    12. Simplice Asongu, 2015. "The impact of mobile phone penetration on African inequality," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 42(8), pages 706-716, August.
    13. Christian Lambert NGUENA & Roger TSAFACK NANFOSSO, 2014. "Macroeconomic Factors and Dynamics of Financial Deepening: An empirical Investigation applied to the CEMAC Sub-region," Research Africa Network Working Papers 14/015, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    14. Simplice Asongu, 2016. "Reinventing Foreign Aid For Inclusive And Sustainable Development: Kuznets, Piketty And The Great Policy Reversal," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 736-755, September.
    15. Asongu, Simplice & Nwachukwu, Jacinta & Aminkeng, Gilbert A. A, 2018. "Lessons from a Survey of China’s Economic Diplomacy," MPRA Paper 88521, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Simplice A. Asongu, 2014. "Knowledge Economy and Financial Sector Competition in African Countries," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 26(2), pages 333-346, June.
    17. Asongu Simplice, 2014. "Fresh Patterns of Liberalization, Bank Return and Return Uncertainty in Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 14/004, African Governance and Development Institute..
    18. Simplice Asongu & John Ssozi, 2016. "Sino-African Relations: Some Solutions and Strategies to the Policy Syndromes," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 33-51, January.
    19. Simplice A. Asongu, 2014. "New Financial Development Indicators: With a Critical Contribution to Inequality Empirics," The International Journal of Economic Behavior - IJEB, Faculty of Business and Administration, University of Bucharest, vol. 4(1), pages 33-50.
    20. Simplice Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2017. "Recent finance advances in information technology for inclusive development: a survey," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 17/009, African Governance and Development Institute..
    21. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Gilbert A. A. Aminkeng, 2018. "Lessons from a Survey of China’s Economic Diplomacy," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/009, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    22. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Gilbert A. A. Aminkeng, 2014. "China’s Strategies in Economic Diplomacy: A Survey of Updated Lessons for Africa, the West and China," Research Africa Network Working Papers 14/036, Research Africa Network (RAN).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Financial Development; Shadow Economy; Poverty; Inequality; Africa;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I3 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
    • E0 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General

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