IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

How has politico-economic liberalization affected financial allocation efficiency? Fresh African evidence

  • Asongu Simplice



This paper investigates how financial, trade, institutional and political liberalization policies have affected financial efficiency in Africa. It uses updated data to appraise second generation reforms in order to gather fresh evidence and derive more updated policy implications. The ‘freedom to trade’ and ‘economic freedom’ indices are also employed. The following findings are established. (1) Financial liberalization mitigates financial allocation efficiency, with the magnitude of the de jure indicator (KAOPEN) higher than that of the de facto measurement (FDI). (2) Exports significantly improve financial efficiency. (3) Institutional liberalization has a positive effect on the efficiency of allocation while the effect of political liberalization is not significant. (4) Freedom of trade decreases (improves) financial (banking) system efficiency. (5) Economic freedom facilitates the transformation of mobilized financial resources (deposits) into credit for economic operators. Justifications for these nexuses are provided.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
File Function: Revised version, 2013
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by African Governance and Development Institute. in its series Working Papers with number 13/012.

in new window

Length: 22
Date of creation: 03 Jan 2013
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Economics Bulletin
Handle: RePEc:agd:wpaper:13/012
Contact details of provider: Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Maurice Obstfeld., 1998. "The Global Capital Market: Benefactor or Menace?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C98-098, University of California at Berkeley.
  2. Henry, Peter B., 2007. "Capital Account Liberalization: Theory, Evidence, and Speculation," Research Papers 1974, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  3. M Arellano & O Bover, 1990. "Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models," CEP Discussion Papers dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  4. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
  5. Kenneth Rogoff, 1999. "International Institutions for Reducing Global Financial Instability," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(4), pages 21-42, Fall.
  6. Asongu Simplice, 2010. "Bank Efficiency and Openness in Africa: Do Income Levels Matter?," Working Papers 10/001, African Governance and Development Institute., revised 18 Dec 2011.
  7. Shady Kholdy & Ahmad Sohrabian, 2008. "Foreign direct investment, financial markets, and political corruption," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 35(6), pages 486-500, November.
  8. Kose, M. Ayhan & Prasad, Eswar S. & Taylor, Ashley D., 2009. "Thresholds in the process of international financial integration," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5149, The World Bank.
  9. Arestis, Philip, et al, 2002. "The Impact of Financial Liberalization Policies on Financial Development: Evidence from Developing Economies," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(2), pages 109-21, April.
  10. Menzie D. Chinn & Hiro Ito, 2002. "Capital Account Liberalization, Institutions and Financial Development: Cross Country Evidence," NBER Working Papers 8967, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Simplice A, Asongu, 2012. "Harmonizing IPRs on Software Piracy: Empirics of Trajectories in Africa," MPRA Paper 42466, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Simplice A, Asongu, 2011. "Finance and democracy in Africa," MPRA Paper 35500, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Michael Enowbi-Batuo & Mlambo Kupukile, 2010. "How can economic and political liberalisation improve financial development in African countries?," Journal of Financial Economic Policy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 2(1), pages 35-59, May.
  14. Asongu Simplice, 2012. "How has Mobile Phone Penetration Stimulated Financial Development in Africa?," Working Papers 12/026, African Governance and Development Institute..
  15. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Series Working Papers 2001-W21, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  16. M.R. Mulwa & A. Emrouznejad & F.M. Murithi, 2009. "Impact of liberalization on efficiency and productivity of sugar industry in Kenya," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 250-264, September.
  17. H.M. Leung, 2003. "External debt and worsening business cycles in less developed countries," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(2), pages 155-168, May.
  18. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler & Jonathan Temple, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Papers 2001-W21, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  19. Simplice A, Asongu, 2012. "How has mobile banking stimulated financial development in Africa?," MPRA Paper 38576, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  20. M. Ayhan Kose & Eswar Prasad & Kenneth Rogoff & Shang-Jin Wei, 2006. "Financial Globalization: A Reappraisal," IMF Working Papers 06/189, International Monetary Fund.
  21. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  22. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "Financial development dynamic thresholds of financial globalization: Evidence from Africa," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(2), pages 166 - 195, March.
  23. Simplice A. ASONGU, 2011. "Why Do French Civil–Law Countries Have Higher Levels Of Financial Efficiency?," Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, ASERS Publishing, vol. 0(2), pages 94-108, December.
  24. Lawrence H. Summers, 2000. "International Financial Crises: Causes, Prevention, and Cures," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 1-16, May.
  25. Sandrine Kablan, 2009. "Banking Efficiency and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 11(2), pages 28-50.
  26. Cho, Yoon Je, 1986. "Inefficiencies from Financial Liberalization in the Absence of Well-Functioning Equity Markets," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 18(2), pages 191-99, May.
  27. Kukenova, Madina, 2011. "Financial liberalization and allocative dfficiency of capital," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5670, The World Bank.
  28. Sandrine Kablan, 2010. "Banking Efficiency and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 10/136, International Monetary Fund.
  29. Henry Kaiser, 1974. "An index of factorial simplicity," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 31-36, March.
  30. Enowbi Batuo, Michael & Guidi, Francesco & Mlambo, Kupukile, 2010. "Financial Development and Income Inequality: Evidence from African Countries," MPRA Paper 25658, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  31. Peter Henry, 2007. "Capital Account Liberalization: Theory, Evidence, and Speculation," Discussion Papers 07-004, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  32. Ali Ataullah & Tony Cockerill & Hang Le, 2004. "Financial liberalization and bank efficiency: a comparative analysis of India and Pakistan," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(17), pages 1915-1924.
  33. Dani Rodrik & Arvind Subramanian, 2009. "Why Did Financial Globalization Disappoint?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 56(1), pages 112-138, April.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:agd:wpaper:13/012. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Asongu Simplice)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.