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Financial liberalization and bank efficiency: a comparative analysis of India and Pakistan

  • Ali Ataullah
  • Tony Cockerill
  • Hang Le
Registered author(s):

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of the evolution of the technical efficiency of commercial banks in India and Pakistan during 1988-1998, a period characterized by far-reaching changes in the banking industry brought about by financial liberalization. Data Envelopment Analysis is applied to two alternative input-output specifications to measure technical efficiency, and to decompose technical efficiency into its two components, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. The consistency of the estimated efficiency scores are checked by examining their relationship with three traditional non-frontier measures of bank performance. In addition, the relationship between bank size and technical efficiency is examined. It is found that the overall technical efficiency of the banking industry of both countries improved gradually over the years, especially after 1995. Unlike public sector banks in India, public sector banks in Pakistan witnessed improvement in scale efficiency only. It is also found that banks are relatively more efficient in generating earning assets than in generating income. This is attributed to the presence of high non-performing loans. In addition, it is found that the gap between the pure technical efficiency of different size groups has declined over the years.

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    File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/000368404200068638
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    Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Applied Economics.

    Volume (Year): 36 (2004)
    Issue (Month): 17 ()
    Pages: 1915-1924

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    Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:36:y:2004:i:17:p:1915-1924
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    1. Isik, Ihsan & Kabir Hassan, M., 2003. "Financial deregulation and total factor productivity change: An empirical study of Turkish commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1455-1485, August.
    2. Paul W. Bauer & Allen N. Berger & Gary D. Ferrier & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "Consistency conditions for regulatory analysis of financial institutions: a comparison of frontier efficiency methods," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-50, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    3. Gilbert, R. Alton & Wilson, Paul W., 1998. "Effects of Deregulation on the Productivity of Korean Banks," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 133-155, March.
    4. Allen N. Berger & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "Inside the Black Box: What Explains Differences in the Efficiencies of Financial Institutions?," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-04, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    5. Hao, Jonathan & Hunter, William Curt & Yang, Won Keun, 2001. "Deregulation and efficiency: the case of private Korean banks," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 53(2-3), pages 237-254.
    6. T. G. Arun & J. D. Turner, 2002. "Financial Sector Reforms in Developing Countries: The Indian Experience," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(3), pages 429-445, 03.
    7. Leightner, Jonathan E. & Lovell, C. A. Knox, 1998. "The Impact of Financial Liberalization on the Performance of Thai Banks," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 115-131, March.
    8. Bhattacharyya, Arunava & Lovell, C. A. K. & Sahay, Pankaj, 1997. "The impact of liberalization on the productive efficiency of Indian commercial banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 332-345, April.
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