Distribution of cost and profit efficiency: Evidence from Indian banking
This paper uses the nonparametric DEA methodology to estimate cost and profit efficiency of Indian banks during the post-reform period. The results show considerable variation in average levels of profit efficiency across various ownership categories of banks. In general, state owned banks are found to be more efficient than their private counter parts. Further, efficiency tends to be low among the small banks (assets up to Rs. 50 billion), indicating that at the existing scale of operations, these banks are operating far below the efficient frontier. We also examine the distribution of efficiency using nonparametric kernel density estimates. The analysis reveals a rightward-shift of the efficiency distribution over the years. A major part of this shift comes from the state owned banks. Based on the conditional distribution, the study finds strong evidence of ownership explaining the efficiency differential of banks. Additionally, bank size and product-mix are also found to be important, although to a lesser extent.
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