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Liberalization, Ownership, and Efficiency in Indian Banking: A Nonparametric Approach

  • Abhiman Das

    (Reserve Bank of India)

  • Ashok Nag

    (Reserve Bank of India)

  • Subhash Ray

    (University of Connecticut)

This paper empirically estimates and analyzes various efficiency scores of Indian banks during 1997-2003 using data envelopment analysis (DEA). During the 1990s India’s financial sector underwent a process of gradual liberalization aimed at strengthening and improving the operational efficiency of the financial system. It is observed, none the less, that Indian banks are still not much differentiated in terms of input or output oriented technical efficiency and cost efficiency. However, they differ sharply in respect of revenue and profit efficiencies. The results provide interesting insight into the empirical correlates of efficiency scores of Indian banks. Bank size, ownership, and the fact of its being listed on the stock exchange are some of the factors that are found to have positive impact on the average profit efficiency and to some extent revenue efficiency scores are. Finally, we observe that the median efficiency scores of Indian banks in general and of bigger banks in particular have improved considerably during the post-reform period.

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Paper provided by University of Connecticut, Department of Economics in its series Working papers with number 2004-29.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uct:uconnp:2004-29
Note: Opinions expressed in this paper are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the institutions with which they are affiliated.
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  1. Mukherjee, Kankana & Ray, Subhash C. & Miller, Stephen M., 2001. "Productivity growth in large US commercial banks: The initial post-deregulation experience," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 913-939, May.
  2. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "Efficiency of Financial Institutions: International Survey and Directions for Future Research," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-05, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  3. Paul W. Bauer & Allen N. Berger & Gary D. Ferrier & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "Consistency conditions for regulatory analysis of financial institutions: a comparison of frontier efficiency methods," Financial Services working paper 97-02, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  4. Richard S. Barr & Kory A. Killgo & Thomas F. Siems & Sheri Zimmel, 1999. "Evaluating the productive efficiency and performance of U.S. commercial banks," Financial Industry Studies Working Paper 99-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  5. R. D. Banker & A. Charnes & W. W. Cooper, 1984. "Some Models for Estimating Technical and Scale Inefficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(9), pages 1078-1092, September.
  6. Bhide, M G & Prasad, A & Ghosh, Saibal, 2001. "Emerging Challenges in Indian Banking," MPRA Paper 1711, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1990. "Measurement and efficiency issues in commercial banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 151, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  8. Charles Dufour & Paul Lanoie & Michel Patry, 1998. "Regulation and Productivity," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 233-247, March.
  9. Gilbert, R. Alton & Wilson, Paul W., 1998. "Effects of Deregulation on the Productivity of Korean Banks," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 133-155, March.
  10. Leightner, Jonathan E. & Lovell, C. A. Knox, 1998. "The Impact of Financial Liberalization on the Performance of Thai Banks," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 115-131, March.
  11. Sarkar, Jayati & Sarkar, Subrata & Bhaumik, Sumon K., 1998. "Does Ownership Always Matter?--Evidence from the Indian Banking Industry," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 262-281, June.
  12. Hao, Jonathan & Hunter, William Curt & Yang, Won Keun, 2001. "Deregulation and efficiency: the case of private Korean banks," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 53(2-3), pages 237-254.
  13. Bhattacharyya, Arunava & Lovell, C. A. K. & Sahay, Pankaj, 1997. "The impact of liberalization on the productive efficiency of Indian commercial banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 332-345, April.
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