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Capital Account Liberalization, Institutions and Financial Development: Cross Country Evidence

  • Menzie D. Chinn
  • Hiro Ito

The empirical relationship between capital controls and the financial development of credit and equity markets is examined. We extend the literature on this subject along a number of dimensions. Specifically, we (1) investigate a substantially broader set of proxy measures of financial development; (2) create and utilize a new index based on the IMF measures of exchange restrictions that incorporates a measure of the intensity of capital controls; and (3) extend the previous literature by systematically examining the implications of institutional (legal) factors. The results suggest that the rate of financial development, as measured by private credit creation and stock market activity, is linked to the existence of capital controls. However, the strength of this relationship varies with the empirical measure used, and the level of development. These results also suggest that only in an environment characterized by a combination of a higher level of legal and institutional development will the link between financial openness and financial development be readily detectable. A disaggregated analysis indicates that in emerging markets the most important components of these legal factors are the levels of shareholder protection and of accounting standards.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 8967.

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Date of creation: May 2002
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8967
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  1. Levine, Ross & Loayza, Norman & Beck, Thorsten, 2000. "Financial intermediation and growth: Causality and causes," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 31-77, August.
  2. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 1999. "A new database on financial development and structure," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2146, The World Bank.
  3. Michael P. Dooley, 1995. "A Survey of Academic Literature on Controls over International Capital Transactions," NBER Working Papers 5352, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Levine, Ross & Zervos, Sara, 1996. "Capital control liberalization and stock market development," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1622, The World Bank.
  5. Joshua Aizenman, 2002. "Financial Opening: Evidence and Policy Options," NBER Working Papers 8900, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Michael W. Klein & Giovanni Olivei, 1999. "Capital Account Liberalization, Financial Depth and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 7384, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125518 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Hali J. Edison & Francis E. Warnock, 2001. "A simple measure of the intensity of capital controls," International Finance Discussion Papers 708, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  9. Arteta, Carlos & Eichengreen, Barry & Wyplosz, Charles, 2001. "When Does Capital Account Liberalization Help More Than it Hurts?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2910, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Vittorio Grilli & Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti, 1995. "Economic Effects and Structural Determinants of Capital Controls," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(3), pages 517-551, September.
  11. Christopher J. Neely, 1999. "An introduction to capital controls," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 13-30.
  12. Michael Leahy & Sebastian Schich & Gert Wehinger & Florian Pelgrin & Thorsteinn Thorgeirsson, 2001. "Contributions of Financial Systems to Growth in OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 280, OECD Publishing.
  13. Levine, Ross & Zervos, Sara, 1998. "Stock Markets, Banks, and Economic Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 537-58, June.
  14. repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125519 is not listed on IDEAS
  15. Hali J. Edison & Michael W. Klein & Luca Antonio Ricci & Torsten Sløk, 2004. "Capital Account Liberalization and Economic Performance: Survey and Synthesis," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 51(2), pages 2.
  16. Anusha Chari & Peter Blair Henry, 2002. "Capital Account Liberalization: Allocative Efficiency or Animal Spirits?," NBER Working Papers 8908, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Corsetti, Giancarlo & Pesenti, Paolo & Roubini, Nouriel, 1999. "Paper tigers?: A model of the Asian crisis," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(7), pages 1211-1236, June.
  18. Menzie D. Chinn & Michael P. Dooley & Sona Shrestha, 1999. "Latin America and East Asia in the Context of an Insurance Model of Currency Crises," NBER Working Papers 7091, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R. & Lundblad, Christian, 2001. "Emerging equity markets and economic development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 465-504, December.
  20. Kaminsky, Graciela & Lizondo, Saul & Reinhart, Carmen M., 1997. "Leading indicators of currency crises," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1852, The World Bank.
  21. Peter Blair Henry, 2000. "Stock Market Liberalization, Economic Reform, and Emerging Market Equity Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 529-564, 04.
  22. Sebastian Edwards, 2001. "Capital Mobility and Economic Performance: Are Emerging Economies Different?," NBER Working Papers 8076, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
  24. Richard J. Herring & Nathporn Chatusripitak, 2000. "The Case of the Missing Market: The Bond Market and Why It Matters for Financial Development," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 01-08, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  25. Natalia T. Tamirisa & R. B. Johnston, 1998. "Why Do Countries Use Capital Controls?," IMF Working Papers 98/181, International Monetary Fund.
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