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A simple measure of the intensity of capital controls

  • Hali J. Edison
  • Francis E. Warnock

We present a readily available monthly measure of the intensity of capital controls across 29 emerging market countries that is based on the degree of restrictions on foreign ownership of equities. The initial opening of a market as given by our measure corresponds well with the liberalization dates of Bekaert and Harvey (2000a). In addition, our measure provides information on the extent of the initial opening as well as the evolution of the liberalization over time. We discuss two versions of the measure. One version provides the better indication of the extent of controls at a point in time, and is thus better suited for cross-sectional analysis. The other version-smoothed of the relative price effects of asymmetric shocks- provides a better indication of changes in controls, and is thus more appropriate for time series work. After describing the measure, we compare it to other existing measures of capital controls and briefly describe some empirical applications.

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Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series International Finance Discussion Papers with number 708.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:708
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  1. de Jong, Frank & de Roon, Frans A., 2005. "Time-varying market integration and expected returns in emerging markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 583-613, December.
  2. Reinhart, Carmen & Montiel, Peter, 1999. "Do capital controls influence the volume and composition of capital flows? Evidence from the 1990s," MPRA Paper 13710, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Bekaert, Geert, 1995. "Market Integration and Investment Barriers in Emerging Equity Markets," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 9(1), pages 75-107, January.
  4. Henry, Peter Blair, 2000. "Do stock market liberalizations cause investment booms?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 301-334.
  5. Torsten Sløk & Michael Klein & Luca Antonio Ricci & Hali J. Edison, 2002. "Capital Account Liberalization and Economic Performance: Survey and Synthesis," IMF Working Papers 02/120, International Monetary Fund.
  6. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey, 1997. "Foreign Speculators and Emerging Equity Markets," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 79, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  7. Vittorio Grilli & Gian-Maria Milesi-Ferretti, 1995. "Economic Effects and Structural Determinants of Capital Controls," IMF Working Papers 95/31, International Monetary Fund.
  8. Edison, Hali J. & Levine, Ross & Ricci, Luca & Slok, Torsten, 2002. "International financial integration and economic growth," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 749-776, November.
  9. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Christian Lundblad, 2004. "Does Financial Liberalization Spur Growth?," Working Paper Research 53, National Bank of Belgium.
  10. Hali J. Edison & Francis E. Warnock, 2006. "Cross-border Listings, Capital Controls, and Equity Flows To Emerging Markets," NBER Working Papers 12589, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R., 1997. "Emerging equity market volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 29-77, January.
  12. Henry, Peter B. & Chari, Anusha, 2001. "Stock Market Liberalizations and the Repricing of Systematic Risk," Research Papers 1677, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  13. Philippe Bacchetta & Eric van Wincoop, 1998. "Capital flows to Emerging Markets: Liberalization, Overshooting, and Volatility," Working Papers 98.01, Swiss National Bank, Study Center Gerzensee.
  14. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Robin L. Lumsdaine, 1999. "The Dynamics of Emerging Market Equity Flows," NBER Working Papers 7219, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Ahearne, Alan G. & Griever, William L. & Warnock, Francis E., 2004. "Information costs and home bias: an analysis of US holdings of foreign equities," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 313-336, March.
  16. Kim, E Han & Singal, Vijay, 2000. "Erratum [Stock Market Openings: Experience of Emerging Economies]," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(4), pages na, October.
  17. Sebastian Edwards, 1998. "Capital Flows, Real Exchange Rates, and Capital Controls: Some Latin American Experiences," NBER Working Papers 6800, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey, 1998. "Capital Flows and the Behavior of Emerging Market Equity Returns," NBER Working Papers 6669, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Karolyi, G. Andrew & Stulz, Rene M., 2003. "Are financial assets priced locally or globally?," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 16, pages 975-1020 Elsevier.
  20. Levine, Ross & Zervos, Sara, 1996. "Capital control liberalization and stock market development," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1622, The World Bank.
  21. Lane, Philip & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, . "External Wealth of Nations," Instructional Stata datasets for econometrics extwealth, Boston College Department of Economics.
  22. Peter Blair Henry, 2000. "Stock Market Liberalization, Economic Reform, and Emerging Market Equity Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 529-564, 04.
  23. Levine, Ross, 2001. "International Financial Liberalization and Economic Growth," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 688-702, November.
  24. Kim, E Han & Singal, Vijay, 2000. "Stock Market Openings: Experience of Emerging Economies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(1), pages 25-66, January.
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