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Financial inclusion research around the world: a review

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  • Ozili, Peterson K

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the recent evidence on financial inclusion from all regions of the World. It identifies the emerging themes in the financial inclusion literature as well as some controversy in policy circles regarding financial inclusion. In particular, I draw attention to some issues such as optimal financial inclusion, extreme financial inclusion, how financial inclusion can transmit systemic risk to the formal financial sector, and whether financial inclusion and exclusion are pro-cyclical with changes in the economic cycle. The key findings in this review indicate that financial inclusion affects, and is influenced by, the level of financial innovation, poverty levels, the stability of the financial sector, the state of the economy, financial literacy, and regulatory frameworks which differ across countries. Finally, the issues discussed in this paper opens up several avenues for future research

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  • Ozili, Peterson K, 2020. "Financial inclusion research around the world: a review," MPRA Paper 101809, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:101809
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    Cited by:

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    2. Ongo Nkoa, Bruno Emmanuel & Song, Jacques Simon, 2020. "Does institutional quality affect financial inclusion in Africa? A panel data analysis," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 44(4).
    3. Helena Susana Amaral Geraldes & Ana Paula Matias Gama & Mário Augusto, 2022. "Reaching Financial Inclusion: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 162(2), pages 599-617, July.
    4. Sergio Luis Náñez Alonso & Javier Jorge-Vazquez & Miguel Ángel Echarte Fernández & Konrad Kolegowicz & Wojciech Szymla, 2022. "Financial Exclusion in Rural and Urban Contexts in Poland: A Threat to Achieving SDG Eight?," Land, MDPI, vol. 11(4), pages 1-21, April.
    5. Ozili, Peterson K, 2021. "Measuring financial inclusion and financial exclusion," MPRA Paper 107866, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Ajide Folorunsho M., 2021. "Financial Inclusion and Labour Market Participation of Women in Selected Countries in Africa," Economics and Culture, Sciendo, vol. 18(1), pages 15-31, June.
    7. Ozili, Peterson Kitakogelu, 2021. "Financial inclusion and legal system quality: are they correlated?," MPRA Paper 110518, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Bassam Al-Own & Tareq Bani-Khalid, 2021. "Financial Inclusion and Tax Revenue: Evidence From Europe," International Journal of Financial Research, International Journal of Financial Research, Sciedu Press, vol. 12(2), pages 27-42, April.
    9. David Mhlanga, 2021. "Financial Inclusion in Emerging Economies: The Application of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in Credit Risk Assessment," IJFS, MDPI, vol. 9(3), pages 1-16, July.
    10. Abdul Karim, Zulkefly & Nizam, Rosmah & Law, Siong Hook & Hassan, M. Kabir, 2022. "Does Financial Inclusiveness Affect Economic Growth? New Evidence Using a Dynamic Panel Threshold Regression," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 46(PA).
    11. Broader, Jacquelyn, 2024. "Tapping In: Leveraging Open-Loop Fare Payments to Increase Financial Inclusion," Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Reports, Working Papers, Proceedings qt88v9c0wm, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.
    12. Aziz, Abdul & Naima, Umma, 2021. "Rethinking digital financial inclusion: Evidence from Bangladesh," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    13. Antonia Grohmann & Lukas Menkhoff, 2020. "The Relationship between Financial Literacy and Financial Inclusion," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1914, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    14. Ozili, Peterson Kitakogelu & Adamu, Ahmed, 2021. "Does financial inclusion reduce non-performing loans and loan loss provisions?," MPRA Paper 109321, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. repec:igg:jamtr0:v:4:y:2022:i:1:p:1-13 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Hunjra, Ahmed Imran & Islam, Faridul & Verhoeven, Peter & Hassan, M. Kabir, 2022. "The impact of a dual banking system on macroeconomic efficiency," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    17. Chang, Lei & Iqbal, Sajid & Chen, Huangen, 2023. "Does financial inclusion index and energy performance index co-move?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 174(C).
    18. Ozili, Peterson K, 2020. "Optimal financial inclusion," MPRA Paper 101808, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Ozili, Peterson K, 2020. "Financial inclusion and Fintech during COVID-19 crisis: Policy solutions," MPRA Paper 111219, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    financial inclusion; financial technology; digital finance; poverty reduction; financial stability; financial institutions; economic cycle; systemic risk; controversy; Fintech.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
    • R2 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis

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