IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/26302.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Financial Frictions and the Wealth Distribution

Author

Listed:
  • Jesús Fernández-Villaverde
  • Samuel Hurtado
  • Galo Nuño

Abstract

This paper investigates how, in a heterogeneous agents model with financial frictions, idiosyncratic individual shocks interact with exogenous aggregate shocks to generate time-varying levels of leverage and endogenous aggregate risk. To do so, we show how such a model can be efficiently computed, despite its substantial nonlinearities, using tools from machine learning. We also illustrate how the model can be structurally estimated with a likelihood function, using tools from inference with diffusions. We document, first, the strong nonlinearities created by financial frictions. Second, we report the existence of multiple stochastic steady states with properties that differ from the deterministic steady state along important dimensions. Third, we illustrate how the generalized impulse response functions of the model are highly state-dependent. In particular, we find that the recovery after a negative aggregate shock is more sluggish when the economy is more leveraged. Fourth, we prove that wealth heterogeneity matters in this economy because of the asymmetric responses of household consumption decisions to aggregate shocks.

Suggested Citation

  • Jesús Fernández-Villaverde & Samuel Hurtado & Galo Nuño, 2019. "Financial Frictions and the Wealth Distribution," NBER Working Papers 26302, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:26302
    Note: EFG
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w26302.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Den Haan, Wouter J, 1996. "Heterogeneity, Aggregate Uncertainty, and the Short-Term Interest Rate," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 14(4), pages 399-411, October.
    2. Galo Nuño & Carlos Thomas, 2017. "Bank Leverage Cycles," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 32-72, April.
    3. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Yuliy Sannikov, 2014. "A Macroeconomic Model with a Financial Sector," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 379-421, February.
    4. Basak, Suleyman & Cuoco, Domenico, 1998. "An Equilibrium Model with Restricted Stock Market Participation," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(2), pages 309-341.
    5. Lo, Andrew W., 1988. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Generalized Itô Processes with Discretely Sampled Data," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(2), pages 231-247, August.
    6. Olivier Blanchard & Jordi Galí, 2010. "Labor Markets and Monetary Policy: A New Keynesian Model with Unemployment," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 1-30, April.
    7. Zhiguo He & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2013. "Intermediary Asset Pricing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(2), pages 732-770, April.
    8. Òscar Jordà & Moritz Schularick & Alan M. Taylor, 2017. "Macrofinancial History and the New Business Cycle Facts," NBER Macroeconomics Annual, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(1), pages 213-263.
    9. Robert Moffitt & Sisi Zhang, 2018. "Income Volatility and the PSID: Past Research and New Results," AEA Papers and Proceedings, American Economic Association, vol. 108, pages 277-280, May.
    10. Den Haan, Wouter J. & Rendahl, Pontus, 2010. "Solving the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty using explicit aggregation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 69-78, January.
    11. Algan, Yann & Allais, Olivier & Den Haan, Wouter J., 2008. "Solving heterogeneous-agent models with parameterized cross-sectional distributions," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 875-908, March.
    12. Yves Achdou & Jiequn Han & Jean-Michel Lasry & Pierre-Louis Lions & Benjamin Moll, 2017. "Income and Wealth Distribution in Macroeconomics: A Continuous-Time Approach," NBER Working Papers 23732, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Drautzburg, Thorsten & Fernández-Villaverde, Jesús & Guerrón-Quintana, Pablo, 2021. "Bargaining shocks and aggregate fluctuations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).
    14. Facundo Alvaredo & Lucas Chancel & Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez & Gabriel Zucman, 2017. "Global Inequality Dynamics: New Findings from WID.world," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(5), pages 404-409, May.
    15. Miao, Jianjun, 2006. "Competitive equilibria of economies with a continuum of consumers and aggregate shocks," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 128(1), pages 274-298, May.
    16. Adrien Auclert & Bence Bardóczy & Matthew Rognlie & Ludwig Straub, 2019. "Using the Sequence-Space Jacobian to Solve and Estimate Heterogeneous-Agent Models," NBER Working Papers 26123, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2014. "This Time is Different: A Panoramic View of Eight Centuries of Financial Crises," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 15(2), pages 215-268, November.
    18. Cho, In-Koo & Sargent, Thomas J., 1996. "Neural networks for encoding and adapting in dynamic economies," Handbook of Computational Economics, in: H. M. Amman & D. A. Kendrick & J. Rust (ed.), Handbook of Computational Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 9, pages 441-470, Elsevier.
    19. Luca Gambetti & Jordi Galí, 2009. "On the Sources of the Great Moderation," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 26-57, January.
    20. Holston, Kathryn & Laubach, Thomas & Williams, John C., 2017. "Measuring the natural rate of interest: International trends and determinants," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(S1), pages 59-75.
    21. Bergin, James & Bernhardt, Dan, 1992. "Anonymous sequential games with aggregate uncertainty," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 543-562.
    22. Robert E. Hall & Paul R. Milgrom, 2008. "The Limited Influence of Unemployment on the Wage Bargain," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1653-1674, September.
    23. Greg Kaplan & Benjamin Moll & Giovanni L. Violante, 2018. "Monetary Policy According to HANK," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 108(3), pages 697-743, March.
    24. S. Rao Aiyagari, 1994. "Uninsured Idiosyncratic Risk and Aggregate Saving," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(3), pages 659-684.
    25. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009. "Varieties of Crises and Their Dates," Introductory Chapters, in: This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, Princeton University Press.
    26. Reiter, Michael, 2009. "Solving heterogeneous-agent models by projection and perturbation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 649-665, March.
    27. Thomas Winberry, 2018. "A method for solving and estimating heterogeneous agent macro models," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 9(3), pages 1123-1151, November.
    28. Bernanke, Ben S. & Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1999. "The financial accelerator in a quantitative business cycle framework," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 21, pages 1341-1393, Elsevier.
    29. Duffie, Darrel & Lions, Pierre-Louis, 1992. "PDE solutions of stochastic differential utility," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 577-606.
    30. George William Evans, 2001. "Expectations in Macroeconomics Adaptive versus Eductive Learning," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 52(3), pages 573-582.
    31. Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei & Valli, Fernando, 2010. "Solving the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty using the Krusell-Smith algorithm," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 42-49, January.
    32. Zhigu He & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2012. "A Model of Capital and Crises," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 735-777.
    33. Michael Kumhof & Romain Rancière & Pablo Winant, 2015. "Inequality, Leverage, and Crises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(3), pages 1217-1245, March.
    34. Duffie, Darrell & Epstein, Larry G, 1992. "Stochastic Differential Utility," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 353-394, March.
    35. SeHyoun Ahn & Greg Kaplan & Benjamin Moll & Thomas Winberry & Christian Wolf, 2018. "When Inequality Matters for Macro and Macro Matters for Inequality," NBER Macroeconomics Annual, University of Chicago Press, vol. 32(1), pages 1-75.
    36. Drautzburg, Thorsten & Fern�ndez-Villaverde, Jes�s & Guerron-Quintana, Pablo A., 2017. "Political Distribution Risk and Aggregate Fluctuations," CEPR Discussion Papers 12187, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    37. Alisdair McKay & Emi Nakamura & Jón Steinsson, 2016. "The Power of Forward Guidance Revisited," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(10), pages 3133-3158, October.
    38. Algan, Yann & Allais, Olivier & Den Haan, Wouter J., 2008. "Solving heterogeneous-agent models with parameterized cross-sectional distributions," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 875-908, March.
    39. Ralph Luetticke, 2018. "Transmission of Monetary Policy with Heterogeneity in Household Portfolios," Discussion Papers 1819, Centre for Macroeconomics (CFM).
    40. Den Haan, Wouter J., 2010. "Comparison of solutions to the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 4-27, January.
    41. Galo Nuño & Carlos Thomas, 2016. "Optimal monetary policy with heterogeneous agents (Updated September 2019)," Working Papers 1624, Banco de España, revised Sep 2019.
    42. Tobias Adrian & Nina Boyarchenko, 2012. "Intermediary leverage cycles and financial stability," Staff Reports 567, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, revised 01 Feb 2015.
    43. Adrian, Tobias & Shin, Hyun Song, 2010. "Liquidity and leverage," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 418-437, July.
    44. Algan, Yann & Allais, Olivier & Den Haan, Wouter J., 2008. "Solving heterogeneous-agent models with parameterized cross-sectional distributions," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 875-908, March.
    45. Nils Gornemann & Keith Kuester & Makoto Nakajima, 2012. "Monetary policy with heterogeneous agents," Working Papers 12-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    46. Felix Kubler & Simon Scheidegger, 2018. "Self-justi ed equilibria: Existence and computation," 2018 Meeting Papers 694, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    47. Matthew Rognlie & Adrien Auclert, 2016. "Inequality and Aggregate Demand," 2016 Meeting Papers 1353, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    48. Greenwood, Jeremy & Hercowitz, Zvi & Krusell, Per, 1997. "Long-Run Implications of Investment-Specific Technological Change," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(3), pages 342-362, June.
    49. Den Haan, Wouter J., 1997. "Solving Dynamic Models With Aggregate Shocks And Heterogeneous Agents," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(2), pages 355-386, June.
    50. Michael Kumhof & Romain Rancière & Pablo Winant, 2015. "Inequality, Leverage, and Crises," Post-Print halshs-01511070, HAL.
    51. Cho In-Koo, 1995. "Perceptrons Play the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 266-284, October.
    52. Algan, Yann & Allais, Olivier & Den Haan, Wouter J., 2010. "Solving the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty using parameterized cross-sectional distributions," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 59-68, January.
    53. Reiter, Michael, 2010. "Solving the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty by backward induction," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 28-35, January.
    54. Per Krusell & Anthony A. Smith & Jr., 1998. "Income and Wealth Heterogeneity in the Macroeconomy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 867-896, October.
    55. Saki Bigio & Yuliy Sannikov, 2019. "A Model of Intermediation, Money, Interest, and Prices," Working Papers 150, Peruvian Economic Association.
    56. Bayer, Christian & Luetticke, Ralph, 2018. "Solving heterogeneous agent models in discrete time with many idiosyncratic states by perturbation methods," CEPR Discussion Papers 13071, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    57. Young, Eric R., 2010. "Solving the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty using the Krusell-Smith algorithm and non-stochastic simulations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 36-41, January.
    58. Andersen, Torben G. & Lund, Jesper, 1997. "Estimating continuous-time stochastic volatility models of the short-term interest rate," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 343-377, April.
    59. Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei & Winant, Pablo, 2019. "Will Artificial Intelligence Replace Computational Economists Any Time Soon?," CEPR Discussion Papers 14024, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    60. Duffie, Darrell & Epstein, Larry G, 1992. "Asset Pricing with Stochastic Differential Utility," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(3), pages 411-436.
    61. Algan, Yann & Allais, Olivier & Den Haan, Wouter J., 2008. "Solving heterogeneous-agent models with parameterized cross-sectional distributions," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 875-908, March.
    62. Huggett, Mark, 1993. "The risk-free rate in heterogeneous-agent incomplete-insurance economies," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 17(5-6), pages 953-969.
    63. Chacko, George & Viceira, Luis M., 2003. "Spectral GMM estimation of continuous-time processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 116(1-2), pages 259-292.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Tobias Adrian & Nina Boyarchenko & Domenico Giannone, 2021. "Multimodality In Macrofinancial Dynamics," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 62(2), pages 861-886, May.
    2. Papp, Tamás K. & Reiter, Michael, 2020. "Estimating linearized heterogeneous agent models using panel data," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    3. Jesus Fernandez-Villaverde & Pablo Guerron-Quintana, 2020. "Uncertainty Shocks and Business Cycle Research," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 37, pages 118-166, August.
    4. Lepetyuk, Vadym & Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei, 2019. "When the U.S. catches a cold, Canada sneezes: a lower-bound tale told by deep learning," CEPR Discussion Papers 14025, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Auclert, Adrien & Bardoczy, Bence & Rognlie, Matthew & Straub, Ludwig, 2019. "Using the Sequence-Space Jacobian to Solve and Estimate Heterogeneous-Agent Models," CEPR Discussion Papers 13890, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Jesus Fernandez-Villaverde, 2020. "Simple Rules for a Complex World with Arti?cial Intelligence," PIER Working Paper Archive 20-010, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
    7. Lepetyuk, Vadym & Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei, 2020. "When the U.S. catches a cold, Canada sneezes: A lower-bound tale told by deep learning," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 117(C).
    8. Michael Reiter, 2019. "Solving Heterogeneous Agent Models with Non-convex Optimization Problems: Linearization and Beyond %," 2019 Meeting Papers 1048, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    9. Hui Chen & Antoine Didisheim & Simon Scheidegger, 2021. "Deep Structural Estimation: With an Application to Option Pricing," Papers 2102.09209, arXiv.org.
    10. Peri, Alessandro, 2020. "A hardware approach to value function iteration," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 114(C).
    11. Duarte, Victor & Duarte, Diogo & Fonseca, Julia & Montecinos, Alexis, 2020. "Benchmarking machine-learning software and hardware for quantitative economics," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 111(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Karsten O. Chipeniuk, 2020. "Optimal Grid Selection for the Numerical Solution of Dynamic Stochastic Optimization Problems," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 56(4), pages 883-928, December.
    2. Takeki Sunakawa, 2020. "Applying the Explicit Aggregation Algorithm to Heterogeneous Macro Models," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 55(3), pages 845-874, March.
    3. Papp, Tamás K. & Reiter, Michael, 2020. "Estimating linearized heterogeneous agent models using panel data," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    4. Gouin-Bonenfant, Emilien & Toda, Alexis Akira, 2018. "Pareto Extrapolation: Bridging Theoretical and Quantitative Models of Wealth Inequality," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt90n2h2bb, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
    5. Giusto, Andrea, 2014. "Adaptive learning and distributional dynamics in an incomplete markets model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 317-333.
    6. Stijn Claessens & M Ayhan Kose, 2018. "Frontiers of macrofinancial linkages," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 95.
    7. Den Haan, Wouter J., 2010. "Assessing the accuracy of the aggregate law of motion in models with heterogeneous agents," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 79-99, January.
    8. Heejeong Kim, . "Inequality, Disaster risk, and the Great Recession," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics.
    9. Krueger, D. & Mitman, K. & Perri, F., 2016. "Macroeconomics and Household Heterogeneity," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & Harald Uhlig (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 843-921, Elsevier.
    10. Algan, Yann & Allais, Olivier & Den Haan, Wouter J., 2010. "Solving the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty using parameterized cross-sectional distributions," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 59-68, January.
    11. Pietro Dindo & Andrea Modena & Loriana Pelizzon, 2019. "Risk Pooling, Leverage, and the Business Cycle," Working Papers 2019: 21, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".
    12. Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei & Valli, Fernando, 2010. "Solving the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty using the Krusell-Smith algorithm," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 42-49, January.
    13. Christian Bayer & Ralph Luetticke, 2019. "Shocks, Frictions, and Inequality in US Business Cycles," 2019 Meeting Papers 256, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    14. Bayer, Christian & Born, Benjamin & Luetticke, Ralph, 2020. "The Liquidity Channel of Fiscal Policy," CEPR Discussion Papers 14883, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. Brunnermeier, M.K. & Sannikov, Y., 2016. "Macro, Money, and Finance," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & Harald Uhlig (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 1497-1545, Elsevier.
    16. Muffasir Badshah & Paul Beaumont & Anuj Srivastava, 2013. "Computing Equilibrium Wealth Distributions in Models with Heterogeneous-Agents, Incomplete Markets and Idiosyncratic Risk," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 41(2), pages 171-193, February.
    17. Bruce Preston & Mauro Roca, 2007. "Incomplete Markets, Heterogeneity and Macroeconomic Dynamics," NBER Working Papers 13260, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Xiaoliang Yang & Patrick Minford & David Meenagh, 2021. "Inequality and Economic Growth in the UK," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 37-69, February.
    19. Boppart, Timo & Krusell, Per & Mitman, Kurt, 2018. "Exploiting MIT shocks in heterogeneous-agent economies: the impulse response as a numerical derivative," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 68-92.
    20. Den Haan, Wouter J. & Rendahl, Pontus, 2010. "Solving the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty using explicit aggregation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 69-78, January.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C45 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Neural Networks and Related Topics
    • C63 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computational Techniques
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:26302. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.