IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Wage structure effects of international trade: Evidence from a small open economy

Listed author(s):
  • Philip Du Caju

    ()

    (National Bank of Belgium, Research Department)

  • François Rycx

    ()

    (Free University of Brussels, DULBEA
    National Bank of Belgium, Research Department
    IZA-Bonn)

  • Ilan Tojerow

    ()

    (Free University of Brussels, DULBEA
    National Bank of Belgium, Research Department
    IZA-Bonn)

In the last few decades, international trade has expanded not only between industrialised countries, but also between high- and low-wage countries. This important change has raised questions on how international trade affects the labour market. In this spirit, this paper aims to investigate the impact of international trade on wage dispersion in a small open economy. It is one of the few to: i) use detailed matched employer-employee data to compute industry wage premia and disaggregated industry level panel data to examine the impact of changes in exports and imports on changes in wage differentials, ii) analyse the impact of imports according to the country of origin. Looking at the export side, we find a positive effect of exports on the industry wage premium. The findings also show that import penetration from low-income countries has a significant and negative impact on inter-industry wage differentials, while imports from high-income countries seem to have a more ambiguous impact on the wage structure. The results suggest that trade with low-income and high-income countries has different effects on inter-industry wage differentials.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: https://www.nbb.be/doc/oc/repec/reswpp/wp214en.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by National Bank of Belgium in its series Working Paper Research with number 214.

as
in new window

Length: 49 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2011
Handle: RePEc:nbb:reswpp:201104-214
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Boulevard de Berlaimont 14, B-1000 Bruxelles

Phone: (+ 32) (0) 2 221 25 34
Fax: (+ 32) (0) 2 221 31 62
Web page: https://www.nbb.be/
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Brenda Gannon & Robert Plasman & Francois Rycx & Ilan Tojerow, 2007. "Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from European Countries," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 38(1), pages 135-155.
  2. Andrew Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Peter Schott, 2003. "Survival of the best fit: exposure to low-wage countries and the (uneven) growth of US manufacturing plants," IFS Working Papers W03/12, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  3. Raymond Robertson, 2000. "Trade Liberalisation and Wage Inequality: Lessons from the Mexican Experience," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(6), pages 827-849, 06.
  4. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
  5. Richard B. Freeman, 1995. "Are Your Wages Set in Beijing?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 15-32, Summer.
  6. repec:ulb:ulbeco:2013/138902 is not listed on IDEAS
  7. Frank Walsh, 1999. "A multisector model of efficiency wages," Open Access publications 10197/188, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  8. Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou & Pavcnik, Nina, 2005. "Trade, wages, and the political economy of trade protection: evidence from the Colombian trade reforms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 75-105, May.
  9. Bruno Crépon & Rozen Desplatz & Jacques Mairesse, 2010. "Price-Cost Margins and Rent Sharing: Evidence from a Panel of French Manufacturing Firms," NBER Chapters, in: Contributions in Memory of Zvi Griliches, pages 583-610 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
  11. Hall, Robert E, 1988. "The Relation between Price and Marginal Cost in U.S. Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(5), pages 921-947, October.
  12. Hirsch, Barry T, 1993. "Trucking Deregulation and Labor Earnings: Is the Union Premium a Compensating Differential?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(2), pages 279-301, April.
  13. John M. Abowd & Thomas Lemieux, 1991. "The Effects of Product Market Competition on Collective Bargaining Agreements: The Case of Foreign Competition in Canada," NBER Working Papers 3808, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Philip Du Caju & Gábor Kátay & Ana Lamo & Daphne Nicolitsas & Steven Poelhekke, 2010. "Inter-industry wage differentials in EU countries: what do cross-country time varying data add to the picture?," MNB Working Papers 2010/9, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary).
  15. Sébastien Jean & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2002. "Product Market Regulation and Wage Premia in Europe and North America: An Empirical Investigation," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 318, OECD Publishing.
  16. Fathi Fakhfakh & Felix FitzRoy, 2004. "Basic Wages and Firm Characteristics: Rent Sharing in French Manufacturing," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 18(4), pages 615-631, December.
  17. Rana Hasan & Lan Chen, 2003. "Trade and Workers: Evidence from the Philippines," Economics Study Area Working Papers 61, East-West Center, Economics Study Area.
  18. Mary E. Lovely & J. David Richardson, 1998. "Trade Flows and Wage Premiums: Does Who or What Matter?," NBER Working Papers 6668, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Marianne Bertrand, 2004. "From the Invisible Handshake to the Invisible Hand? How Import Competition Changes the Employment Relationship," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(4), pages 723-766, October.
  20. Mahmood Arai, 2003. "Wages, Profits, and Capital Intensity: Evidence from Matched Worker-Firm Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(3), pages 593-618, July.
  21. John M. Abowd & Francis Kramarz & David N. Margolis, 1994. "High Wage Workers and High Wage Firms," NBER Working Papers 4917, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Guadalupe, Maria, 2004. "Product Market Competition, Returns to Skill and Wage Inequality," CEPR Discussion Papers 4434, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  23. Martins, Pedro S., 2004. "Industry wage premia: evidence from the wage distribution," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 157-163, May.
  24. Filip Abraham & Jozef Konings & Stijn Vanormelingen, 2007. "The Effect of Globalization on Union Bargaining and Price-Cost Margins of Firms," LICOS Discussion Papers 18107, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  25. Joop Hartog & Pedro Pereira & José Vieira, 2000. "Inter-industry Wage Dispersion in Portugal," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 27(4), pages 353-364, December.
  26. Puja Vasudeva Dutta, 2004. "Trade Protection and Inter-industry Wages in India," PRUS Working Papers 27, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
  27. John Van Reenen, 1996. "The Creation and Capture of Rents: Wages and Innovation in a Panel of U. K. Companies," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(1), pages 195-226.
  28. Giovanni Ferro-Luzzi, 1994. "Inter-Industry Wage Differentials in Switzerland," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 130(III), pages 421-443, September.
  29. Puja Vasudeva Dutta, 2007. "Trade Protection and Industry Wages in India," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 60(2), pages 268-286, January.
  30. Lundin, Nan Nan & Yun, Lihong, 2004. "International Trade and Inter-Industry Wage Structure in Swedish Manufacturing - Evidence from matched employer-employee data," Working Paper Series 196, Trade Union Institute for Economic Research.
  31. Goux, Dominique & Maurin, Eric, 1999. "Persistence of Interindustry Wage Differentials: A Reexamination Using Matched Worker-Firm Panel Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(3), pages 492-533, July.
  32. François Rycx & Philip Du Caju & Ilan Tojerow, 2009. "Inter-Industry Wage Differentials :How much does rent sharing matter ?," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/245783, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  33. Salvanes, K.G. & Burgess, S. & Lane, J., 1998. "Sources of Earnings Dispersion in a Linked Employer-Employee Dataset: Evidence from Norway," Papers 22/98, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
  34. Bernard Hoekman & Alan L. Winters, 2005. "Trade and Employment: Stylized Facts and Research Findings," Working Papers 7, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
  35. Edin, Per-Anders & Zetterberg, Johnny, 1992. "Interindustry Wage Differentials: Evidence from Sweden and a Comparison with the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1341-1349, December.
  36. George J. Borjas & Valerie A. Ramey, 1995. "Foreign Competition, Market Power, and Wage Inequality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 1075-1110.
  37. Holmlund, Bertil & Zetterberg, Johnny, 1991. "Insider effects in wage determination : Evidence from five countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 1009-1034, July.
  38. Teulings,Coen & Hartog,Joop, 2008. "Corporatism or Competition?," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521049399, May.
  39. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
  40. L Christofides & A Oswald, 1991. "Real Wage Determination and Rent-Sharing in Collective Bargaining Agreements," CEP Discussion Papers dp0042, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  41. Pedro Martins, 2009. "Rent sharing before and after the wage bill," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(17), pages 2133-2151.
  42. Ilan Tojerow & François Rycx, 2004. "Rent-sharing and the gender wage gap in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/245700, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  43. Van Biesebroeck, Johannes, 2005. "Exporting raises productivity in sub-Saharan African manufacturing firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 373-391, December.
  44. John W. Budd & Matthew J.Slaughter, 2000. "Are Profits Shared Across Borders? Evidence on International Rent Sharing," NBER Working Papers 8014, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  45. John P. Haisken-DeNew & Christoph M. Schmidt, "undated". "Inter-Industry and Inter-Region Differentials: Mechanics and Interpretation," Working Papers 9504, SELAPO Center for Human Resources.
  46. Björklund, Anders & Bratsberg, Bernt & Eriksson, Tor & Jäntti, Markus & Raaum, Oddbjørn, 2004. "Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and Unobserved Ability: Siblings Evidence from Five Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 1080, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  47. Schank, Thorsten & Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2007. "Do exporters really pay higher wages? First evidence from German linked employer-employee data," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 52-74, May.
  48. Lawrence F. Katz & Lawrence H. Summers, 1988. "Can Inter-Industry Wage Differentials Justify Strategic Trade Policy?," NBER Working Papers 2739, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  49. Robert Z. Lawrence, 2000. "Does a Kick in the Pants Get You Going or Does It Just Hurt? The Impact of International Competition on Technological Change in U.S. Manufacturing," NBER Chapters, in: The Impact of International Trade on Wages, pages 197-224 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  50. Card, David, 1996. "The Effect of Unions on the Structure of Wages: A Longitudinal Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 957-979, July.
  51. Matthew J. Slaughter, 1999. "Globalisation and Wages: A Tale of Two Perspectives," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(5), pages 609-629, 07.
  52. Sébastien Jean & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2004. "Regulation and Wage Premia," Working Papers 2004-12, CEPII research center.
  53. Rose, Nancy L, 1987. "Labor Rent Sharing and Regulation: Evidence from the Trucking Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(6), pages 1146-1178, December.
  54. François Rycx & Ilan Tojerow, 2007. "Inter-industry wage differentials: What do we know?," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/138900, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  55. Hildreth, Andrew K G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1997. "Rent-Sharing and Wages: Evidence from Company and Establishment Panels," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 318-337, April.
  56. Margolis, David N. & Salvanes, Kjell G., 2001. "Do Firms Really Share Rents with Their Workers?," IZA Discussion Papers 330, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  57. David Margolis & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2001. "Do Firms Really Share Rents with Their Employees?," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00369141, HAL.
  58. Benito, Andrew, 2000. " Inter-industry Wage Differentials in Great Britain," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 62(0), pages 727-746, Special I.
  59. Kevin Reilly & Luisa Zanchi, 2002. "Industry Wage Differentials: How Many, Big and Significant Are They?," Labor and Demography 0209001, EconWPA.
  60. Vicente Cuñat & Maria Guadalupe, 2009. "Globalization and the provision of incentives inside the firm: The effect of foreign competition," Economics Working Papers 1134, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  61. Nina Pavcnik & Andreas Blom & Pinelopi Goldberg & Norbert Schady, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and Industry Wage Structure: Evidence from Brazil," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 18(3), pages 319-344.
  62. Maurice Kugler & Eric Verhoogen, 2009. "Plants and Imported Inputs: New Facts and an Interpretation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 501-507, May.
  63. Martins, Pedro S. & Opromolla, Luca David, 2009. "Exports, Imports and Wages: Evidence from Matched Firm-Worker-Product Panels," IZA Discussion Papers 4646, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  64. Barth, Erling & Zweimuller, Josef, 1992. "Labor Market Institutions and the Industry Wage Distribution: Evidence from Austria, Norway, and the U.S," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt1811h146, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
  65. Mahmood Araï & Gérard Ballot & Ali Skalli, 1996. "Différentiels intersectoriels de salaire et caractéristiques des employeurs en France," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 299(1), pages 37-58.
  66. Noel Gaston & Daniel Trefler, 1994. "Protection, Trade, and Wages: Evidence from U.S. Manufacturing," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 47(4), pages 574-593, July.
  67. repec:adr:anecst:y:1996:i:41-42 is not listed on IDEAS
  68. repec:ulb:ulbeco:2013/134392 is not listed on IDEAS
  69. Helwege, Jean, 1992. "Sectoral Shifts and Interindustry Wage Differentials," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 10(1), pages 55-84, January.
  70. Robert Gibbons & Lawrence Katz, 1992. "Does Unmeasured Ability Explain Inter-Industry Wage Differentials?," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(3), pages 515-535.
  71. Kahn, Lawrence M, 1998. "Collective Bargaining and the Interindustry Wage Structure: International Evidence," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 65(260), pages 507-534, November.
  72. Dani Rodrik, 1997. "Has Globalization Gone Too Far?," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 57, January.
  73. Alex Grey, 1993. "Interindustry Wage Differentials in Manufacturing: Rents and Industrial Structure," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 525-535, August.
  74. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald & Peter Sanfey, 1992. "Wages, Profits and Rent-Sharing," NBER Working Papers 4222, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  75. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00369141 is not listed on IDEAS
  76. M Arellano & O Bover, 1990. "Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models," CEP Discussion Papers dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  77. Ana L. Revenga, 1992. "Exporting Jobs?The Impact of Import Competition on Employment and Wages in U. S. Manufacturing," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 255-284.
  78. Eric A. Verhoogen, 2008. "Trade, Quality Upgrading, and Wage Inequality in the Mexican Manufacturing Sector," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 123(2), pages 489-530.
  79. Abowd, John M. & Kramarz, Francis, 1999. "Econometric analyses of linked employer-employee data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 53-74, March.
  80. repec:adr:anecst:y:1996:i:41-42:p:09 is not listed on IDEAS
  81. Maarten Goos & Jozef Konings, 2000. "Does Rent-Sharing Exist in Belgium? an Empirical Analysis Using Firm Level Data," Working Papers Department of Economics ces0019, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business, Department of Economics.
  82. Krueger, Alan B & Summers, Lawrence H, 1988. "Efficiency Wages and the Inter-industry Wage Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(2), pages 259-293, March.
  83. Alan Carruth & William Collier & Andy Dickerson, 2004. "Inter-industry Wage Differences and Individual Heterogeneity," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 66(5), pages 811-846, December.
  84. Vainiomaki, Jari & Laaksonen, Seppo, 1995. "Inter-industry wage differentials in Finland: Evidence from longitudinal census data for 1975-85," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 161-173, June.
  85. Zadia M. Feliciano, 2001. "Workers and Trade Liberalization: The Impact of Trade Reforms in Mexico on Wages and Employment," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 95-115, October.
  86. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
  87. Cuñat, Vicente & Guadalupe, Maria, 2006. "Globalization and the Provision of Incentives Inside the Firm," CEPR Discussion Papers 5950, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  88. John M. Abowd & Laurence Allain, 1996. "Compensation Structure and Product Market Competition," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 41-42, pages 207-217.
  89. Jan De Loecker, 2011. "Product Differentiation, Multiproduct Firms, and Estimating the Impact of Trade Liberalization on Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 79(5), pages 1407-1451, 09.
  90. Steve Bond, 2002. "Dynamic panel data models: a guide to microdata methods and practice," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/02, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbb:reswpp:201104-214. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.