IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Women's Employment: Beyond Individual Characteristics vs. Contextual Factors Explanations

  • Angela Cipollone


    (Department of Economics and Business, LUISS Guido Carli University)

  • Carlo D'Ippoliti


    (Department of Statistics, Sapienza University of Rome)

Between the late seventies and the first years of the 21st century, women started to be more and more represented among the employed population in all developed countries. Despite Italy’s Regions underwent notable changes of policies and socioeconomic indicators during the last few decades, some regional specificities are historically consistent: all along the period considered regions in the South exhibit low women’s employment rate coupled with low levels of civic development, weaker macroeconomic conditions and low average educational attainment. In this paper, we exploited these sources of Regional variance in the most relevant socio-economic indicators to estimate the joint impact of individual and macro variables on women’s employment. While among individual and contextual characteristics, education played the major role to enhance women’s participation in the labour market, the cultural evolution and the removal of gender-based discrimination are the sole macroeconomic variables which positively contributed to women’s employment since 1970s, while a move away from the public provision of services exerted a negative impact. Contrarily to what frequently assumed, macroeconomic growth has played an ambiguous but role on women’s employment over time, by worsening the probability of women’s employment in the years 1977 and 1986, reversing this pattern only since the 1990s.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli in its series Working Papers CELEG with number 0901.

in new window

Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:lui:celegw:0901
Contact details of provider: Postal: Viale Romania 32 - 00197 Roma
Phone: 06 85225.550
Fax: 06 85225.973
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

No references listed on IDEAS
You can help add them by filling out this form.

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lui:celegw:0901. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Paolo Giordani)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.