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Child Care Before Age Two and the Development of Language and Numeracy: Evidence from a Lottery

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  • Drange, Nina

    (Statistics Norway)

  • Havnes, Tarjei

    (Norwegian Ministry of Finance)

Abstract

Young children are thought to be vulnerable to separation from the primary caregiver/s. This raises concern about whether early child care enrollment may harm children's development. We use child care assignment lotteries to estimate the effect of child care starting age on early cognitive achievement in Oslo, Norway. Getting a lottery offer lowers starting age by about four months, from a mean of about 19 months in the control group. Lottery estimates show significant score gains for children at age seven. Survey evidence and an increase in labor supply of both mothers and fathers following the offer, suggest that parental care is the most relevant alternative mode of care. We document that the assignment lottery generates balance in observable characteristics, supporting our empirical approach.

Suggested Citation

  • Drange, Nina & Havnes, Tarjei, 2015. "Child Care Before Age Two and the Development of Language and Numeracy: Evidence from a Lottery," IZA Discussion Papers 8904, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp8904
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    Cited by:

    1. Fort, Margherita & Zanella, Giulio, 2019. "Cognitive and non-cognitive costs of daycare 0–2 for children in advantaged families," CEPR Discussion Papers 11120, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Yamaguchi, Shintaro & Asai, Yukiko & Kambayashi, Ryo & 神林, 龍, 2017. "How Does Early Childcare Enrollment Affect Children, Parents, and Their Interactions?," Discussion Paper Series 656, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    3. van Huizen, Thomas & Plantenga, Janneke, 2018. "Do children benefit from universal early childhood education and care? A meta-analysis of evidence from natural experiments," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 206-222.
    4. Nabanita Datta Gupta & Jonas Jessen, 2023. "Maternity leave versus early childcare—What are the long-term consequences for children?," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 438-438, May.
    5. Natalia Danzer & Martin Halla & Nicole Schneeweis & Martina Zweimüller, 2022. "Parental Leave, (In)formal Childcare, and Long-Term Child Outcomes," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 57(6), pages 1826-1884.
    6. Peter, Frauke H. & Schober, Pia S. & Spiess, Katharina C., 2016. "Early Birds in Day Care: The Social Gradient in Starting Day Care and Children’s Non-cognitive Skills," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 62(4), pages 725-751.
    7. Kuehnle, Daniel & Oberfichtner, Michael, 2017. "Does early child care attendance influence children's cognitive and non-cognitive skill development?," VfS Annual Conference 2017 (Vienna): Alternative Structures for Money and Banking 168241, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    8. Francesca Carta, 2019. "Female labour supply in Italy: the role of parental leave and child care policies," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 539, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    9. Francesca Carta & Lucia Rizzica, 2016. "Female employment and pre-kindergarten: On the unintended effects of an Italian reformAbstract: We theoretically show that when mothers need to buy childcare services not only if they work but also if," Working Papers 091, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
    10. Carta, Francesca & Rizzica, Lucia, 2018. "Early kindergarten, maternal labor supply and children's outcomes: Evidence from Italy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 79-102.
    11. Shintaro Yamaguchi & Yukiko Asai & Ryo Kambayashi, 2017. "How Does Early Childcare Enrollment Affect Children, Parents, and Their Interactions?," Department of Economics Working Papers 2017-05, McMaster University.
    12. repec:ces:ifodic:v:15:y:2017:i:1:p:19307500 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Daniela Del Boca & Enrica Maria Martino & Chiara Pronzato, 2017. "Early Childcare and Child Non-Cognitive Outcomes," CHILD Working Papers Series 58 JEL Classification: J1, Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic Economics (CHILD) - CCA.
    14. Nores, Milagros & Bernal, Raquel & Barnett, W. Steven, 2019. "Center-based care for infants and toddlers: The aeioTU randomized trial," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 30-43.
    15. Yamaguchi, Shintaro & Asai, Yukiko & Kambayashi, Ryo, 2018. "How does early childcare enrollment affect children, parents, and their interactions?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 56-71.
    16. Andersland, Leroy, 2017. "A Universal Childcare Expansion, Quality, Starting Age, and School Performance," Working Papers in Economics 8/17, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
    17. Daniela Del Boca & Enrica Maria Martino & Daniela Piazzalunga, 2017. "Investments in Early Education and Child Outcomes: The Short and the Long Run," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 15(01), pages 43-48, April.
    18. Fort, Margherita & Ichino, Andrea & Zanella, Giulio, 2016. "Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Costs of Daycare 0–2 for Girls," IZA Discussion Papers 9756, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. Daniela Del Boca & Enrica Maria Martino & Daniela Piazzalunga, 2017. "Investments in Early Education and Child Outcomes: The Short and the Long Run," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 15(1), pages 43-48, 04.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    child development; early child care;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth

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