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Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Care and Education

Author

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  • Ruhm, Christopher J.

    () (University of Virginia)

  • Waldfogel, Jane

    () (Columbia University)

Abstract

This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benefits. By contrast, expansions of early education generally yield benefits at school entry, adolescence, and for adults, particularly for disadvantaged children; however the gains may be less pronounced when high quality subsidized child care was available prior to the program expansion or when subsidies increased the use of low quality care.

Suggested Citation

  • Ruhm, Christopher J. & Waldfogel, Jane, 2011. "Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Care and Education," IZA Discussion Papers 6149, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6149
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Michael Baker & Jonathan Gruber & Kevin Milligan, 2008. "Universal Child Care, Maternal Labor Supply, and Family Well-Being," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(4), pages 709-745, August.
    2. Pedro Carneiro & Katrine Loken & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2010. "A flying start? Long term consequences of maternal time investments in children during their first year of life," CeMMAP working papers CWP38/10, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    3. Michael Baker & Kevin Milligan, 2015. "Maternity leave and children’s cognitive and behavioral development," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 28(2), pages 373-391, April.
    4. Berlinski, Samuel & Galiani, Sebastian & Gertler, Paul, 2009. "The effect of pre-primary education on primary school performance," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1-2), pages 219-234, February.
    5. Elizabeth U. Cascio, 2009. "Do Investments in Universal Early Education Pay Off? Long-term Effects of Introducing Kindergartens into Public Schools," NBER Working Papers 14951, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Datta Gupta, Nabanita & Simonsen, Marianne, 2010. "Non-cognitive child outcomes and universal high quality child care," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1-2), pages 30-43, February.
    7. Berlinski, Samuel & Galiani, Sebastian & Manacorda, Marco, 2008. "Giving children a better start: Preschool attendance and school-age profiles," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(5-6), pages 1416-1440, June.
    8. Michael Baker & Kevin Milligan, 2010. "Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 45(1).
    9. Sara Cools & Jon H. Fiva & Lars J. Kirkebøen, 2015. "Causal Effects of Paternity Leave on Children and Parents," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 117(3), pages 801-828, July.
    10. Datta Gupta, Nabanita & Simonsen, Marianne, 2011. "Where to Put the Kids? Effects of Type of Non-parental Child Care on Pre-teen Skills and Risky Behavior," IZA Discussion Papers 5848, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Nina Drange & Kjetil Telle, 2010. "The effect of preschool on the school performance of children from immigrant families. Results from an introduction of free preschool in two districts in Oslo," Discussion Papers 631, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Nina Drange & Tarjei Havnes, 2015. "Child care before age two and the development of language and numeracy. Evidence from a lottery," Discussion Papers 808, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    2. Frauke H. Peter & Pia S. Schober & Katharina C. Spiess, 2016. "Early Birds in Day Care: The Social Gradient in Starting Day Care and Children’s Non-cognitive Skills," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 62(4), pages 725-751.
    3. Marigen Narea, 2014. "Does early centre-based care have an impact on child cognitive and socio-emotional development? Evidence from Chile," CASE Papers case183, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE.
    4. repec:spr:soinre:v:134:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11205-016-1456-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Andritzky, Jochen & Aretz, Bodo & Christofzik, Désirée I. & Schmidt, Christoph M., 2016. "Influx of refugees: Integration as a key challenge," Working Papers 09/2016, German Council of Economic Experts / Sachverständigenrat zur Begutachtung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung.
    6. Gambaro, Ludovica & Stewart, Kitty & Waldfogel, Jane, 2013. "A question of quality: do children from disadvantagedbackgrounds receive lower quality early years educationand care in England?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 51274, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    7. repec:cep:sticas:/183 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    parental leave; early childhood care and education;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J18 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Public Policy
    • J48 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Particular Labor Markets; Public Policy

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