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Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Care and Education

  • Ruhm, Christopher J.


    (University of Virginia)

  • Waldfogel, Jane


    (Columbia University)

This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benefits. By contrast, expansions of early education generally yield benefits at school entry, adolescence, and for adults, particularly for disadvantaged children; however the gains may be less pronounced when high quality subsidized child care was available prior to the program expansion or when subsidies increased the use of low quality care.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6149.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Nordic Economic Policy Review, Economics of Education, 2012, 23-51
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6149
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  1. Samuel Berlinski & Sebastian Galiani & Marco Manacorda, 2007. "Giving Children a Better Start: Preschool Attendance and School-Age Profiles," Working Papers 618, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
  2. Nabanita Datta Gupta & Marianne Simonsen, 2007. "Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care," Economics Working Papers 2007-17, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
  3. Nina Drange & Kjetil Telle, 2010. "The effect of preschool on the school performance of children from immigrant families. Results from an introduction of free preschool in two districts in Oslo," Discussion Papers 631, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  4. Michael Baker & Jonathan Gruber & Kevin Milligan, 2008. "Universal Child Care, Maternal Labor Supply, and Family Well-Being," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(4), pages 709-745, 08.
  5. Samuel Berlinski & Sebastian Galiani & Paul Gertler, 2006. "The Effect of Pre-Primary Education on Primary School Performance," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp838, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  6. Carneiro, Pedro & Løken, Katrine & Salvanes, Kjell G, 2010. "A flying start? Long term consequences of maternal time investments in children during their first year of life," CEPR Discussion Papers 8124, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Michael Baker & Kevin S. Milligan, 2011. "Maternity Leave and Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Development," NBER Working Papers 17105, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Elizabeth U. Cascio, 2009. "Do Investments in Universal Early Education Pay Off? Long-term Effects of Introducing Kindergartens into Public Schools," NBER Working Papers 14951, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Sara Cools & Jon H. Fiva & Lars J. Kirkebøen, 2011. "Causal Effects of Paternity Leave on Children and Parents," CESifo Working Paper Series 3513, CESifo Group Munich.
  10. Michael Baker & Kevin Milligan, 2008. "Evidence From Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development," NBER Working Papers 13826, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Datta Gupta, Nabanita & Simonsen, Marianne, 2011. "Where to Put the Kids? Effects of Type of Non-parental Child Care on Pre-teen Skills and Risky Behavior," IZA Discussion Papers 5848, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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