IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ifs/cemmap/10-19.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Testing identifying assumptions in fuzzy regression discontinuity designs

Author

Listed:
  • Yoichi Arai

    (Institute for Fiscal Studies)

  • Yu-Chin Hsu

    (Institute for Fiscal Studies)

  • Toru Kitagawa

    (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London)

  • Ismael Mourifié

    (Institute for Fiscal Studies)

  • Yuanyuan Wan

    (Institute for Fiscal Studies)

Abstract

We propose a new specification test for assessing the validity of fuzzy regression discontinuity designs (FRD-validity). We derive a new set of testable implications, characterized by a set of inequality restrictions on the joint distribution of observed outcomes and treatment status at the cut-off. We show that this new characterization exploits all the information in the data useful for detecting violations of FRD-validity. Our approach differs from, and complements existing approaches that test continuity of the distributions of running variables and baseline covariates at the cut-off since ours focuses on the distribution of the observed outcome and treatment status. We show that the proposed test has appealing statistical properties. It controls size in large sample uniformly over a large class of distributions, is consistent against all fixed alternatives, and has non-trivial power against some local alternatives. We apply our test to evaluate the validity of two FRD designs. The test does not reject the FRD-validity in the class size design studied by Angrist and Lavy (1999) and rejects in the insurance subsidy design for poor households in Colombia studied by Miller, Pinto, and Vera-Hernández (2013) for some outcome variables, while existing density tests suggest the opposite in each of the cases.

Suggested Citation

  • Yoichi Arai & Yu-Chin Hsu & Toru Kitagawa & Ismael Mourifié & Yuanyuan Wan, 2019. "Testing identifying assumptions in fuzzy regression discontinuity designs," CeMMAP working papers CWP10/19, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:ifs:cemmap:10/19
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.ifs.org.uk/uploads/cemmap/wps/CWP101919.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sebastian Calonico & Matias D. Cattaneo & Max H. Farrell, 2018. "On the Effect of Bias Estimation on Coverage Accuracy in Nonparametric Inference," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 113(522), pages 767-779, April.
    2. Keele, Luke J. & Titiunik, Rocío, 2015. "Geographic Boundaries as Regression Discontinuities," Political Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(1), pages 127-155, January.
    3. Frandsen, Brigham R. & Frölich, Markus & Melly, Blaise, 2012. "Quantile treatment effects in the regression discontinuity design," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 168(2), pages 382-395.
    4. Clément de Chaisemartin & Xavier d'Haultfoeuille, 2012. "Late Again with Defiers," PSE Working Papers halshs-00699646, HAL.
    5. Linton, Oliver & Song, Kyungchul & Whang, Yoon-Jae, 2010. "An improved bootstrap test of stochastic dominance," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 154(2), pages 186-202, February.
    6. Arai, Yoichi & Ichimura, Hidehiko, 2016. "Optimal bandwidth selection for the fuzzy regression discontinuity estimator," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 103-106.
    7. Hansen, Bruce E, 1996. "Inference When a Nuisance Parameter Is Not Identified under the Null Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(2), pages 413-430, March.
    8. Donald W. K. Andrews & Xiaoxia Shi, 2013. "Inference Based on Conditional Moment Inequalities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(2), pages 609-666, March.
    9. Victor Chernozhukov & Sokbae Lee & Adam M. Rosen, 2013. "Intersection Bounds: Estimation and Inference," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(2), pages 667-737, March.
    10. Clément de Chaisemartin, 2017. "Tolerating defiance? Local average treatment effects without monotonicity," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 8(2), pages 367-396, July.
    11. Bugni, Federico A. & Canay, Ivan A., 2021. "Testing continuity of a density via g-order statistics in the regression discontinuity design," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 221(1), pages 138-159.
    12. Sebastian Calonico & Matias D. Cattaneo & Max H. Farrell & Rocío Titiunik, 2019. "Regression Discontinuity Designs Using Covariates," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 101(3), pages 442-451, July.
    13. David S. Lee & Thomas Lemieux, 2010. "Regression Discontinuity Designs in Economics," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 48(2), pages 281-355, June.
    14. Matias D. Cattaneo & Michael Jansson & Xinwei Ma, 2020. "Simple Local Polynomial Density Estimators," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 115(531), pages 1449-1455, July.
    15. Imbens, Guido W. & Lemieux, Thomas, 2008. "Regression discontinuity designs: A guide to practice," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 615-635, February.
    16. James J. Heckman & Edward Vytlacil, 2005. "Structural Equations, Treatment Effects, and Econometric Policy Evaluation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 73(3), pages 669-738, May.
    17. Toru Kitagawa & Aleksey Tetenov, 2018. "Who Should Be Treated? Empirical Welfare Maximization Methods for Treatment Choice," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 86(2), pages 591-616, March.
    18. Ralph Stinebrickner & Todd R. Stinebrickner, 2014. "A Major in Science? Initial Beliefs and Final Outcomes for College Major and Dropout," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 81(1), pages 426-472.
    19. Hansen, Peter Reinhard, 2005. "A Test for Superior Predictive Ability," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 23, pages 365-380, October.
    20. François Gerard & Miikka Rokkanen & Christoph Rothe, 2020. "Bounds on treatment effects in regression discontinuity designs with a manipulated running variable," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 11(3), pages 839-870, July.
    21. Armstrong, Timothy B. & Chan, Hock Peng, 2016. "Multiscale adaptive inference on conditional moment inequalities," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 194(1), pages 24-43.
    22. Pedro Carneiro & Rita Ginja, 2014. "Long-Term Impacts of Compensatory Preschool on Health and Behavior: Evidence from Head Start," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 6(4), pages 135-173, November.
    23. Sebastian Calonico & Matias D. Cattaneo & Rocio Titiunik, 2014. "Robust Nonparametric Confidence Intervals for Regression‐Discontinuity Designs," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 82, pages 2295-2326, November.
    24. Yu-Chin Hsu & Shu Shen, 2016. "Testing for Treatment Effect Heterogeneity in Regression Discontinuity Design," IEAS Working Paper : academic research 16-A005, Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    25. Sebastian Calonico & Matias D Cattaneo & Max H Farrell, 2020. "Optimal bandwidth choice for robust bias-corrected inference in regression discontinuity designs [Econometric methods for program evaluation]," The Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 23(2), pages 192-210.
    26. Garry F. Barrett & Stephen G. Donald, 2003. "Consistent Tests for Stochastic Dominance," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(1), pages 71-104, January.
    27. Marinho Bertanha & Guido W. Imbens, 2020. "External Validity in Fuzzy Regression Discontinuity Designs," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(3), pages 593-612, July.
    28. McCrary, Justin, 2008. "Manipulation of the running variable in the regression discontinuity design: A density test," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 698-714, February.
    29. Yingying Dong, 2018. "Alternative Assumptions to Identify LATE in Fuzzy Regression Discontinuity Designs," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 80(5), pages 1020-1027, October.
    30. Michal Kolesár & Christoph Rothe, 2018. "Inference in Regression Discontinuity Designs with a Discrete Running Variable," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 108(8), pages 2277-2304, August.
    31. Toru Kitagawa, 2015. "A Test for Instrument Validity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 83(5), pages 2043-2063, September.
    32. Chetverikov, Denis, 2018. "Adaptive Tests Of Conditional Moment Inequalities," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 34(1), pages 186-227, February.
    33. Ivan A Canay & Vishal Kamat, 2018. "Approximate Permutation Tests and Induced Order Statistics in the Regression Discontinuity Design," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 85(3), pages 1577-1608.
    34. Ismael Mourifié & Yuanyuan Wan, 2017. "Testing Local Average Treatment Effect Assumptions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 99(2), pages 305-313, May.
    35. Grant Miller & Diana Pinto & Marcos Vera-Hernández, 2013. "Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(4), pages 61-91, October.
    36. Stephen G. Donald & Yu-Chin Hsu, 2016. "Improving the Power of Tests of Stochastic Dominance," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(4), pages 553-585, April.
    37. Taisuke Otsu & Ke-Li Xu & Yukitoshi Matsushita, 2013. "Estimation and Inference of Discontinuity in Density," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(4), pages 507-524, October.
    38. Andrews, Donald W.K. & Shi, Xiaoxia, 2014. "Nonparametric inference based on conditional moment inequalities," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 179(1), pages 31-45.
    39. Guido Imbens & Karthik Kalyanaraman, 2012. "Optimal Bandwidth Choice for the Regression Discontinuity Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(3), pages 933-959.
    40. Beatrix Eugster & Rafael Lalive & Andreas Steinhauer & Josef Zweimüller, 2017. "Culture, Work Attitudes, and Job Search: Evidence from the Swiss Language Border," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 15(5), pages 1056-1100.
    41. Basit Zafar, 2011. "How Do College Students Form Expectations?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(2), pages 301-348.
    42. Hsu, Yu-Chin & Shen, Shu, 2019. "Testing treatment effect heterogeneity in regression discontinuity designs," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 208(2), pages 468-486.
    43. Hahn, Jinyong & Todd, Petra & Van der Klaauw, Wilbert, 2001. "Identification and Estimation of Treatment Effects with a Regression-Discontinuity Design," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(1), pages 201-209, January.
    44. Yu-Chin Hsu, 2016. "Multiplier Bootstrap for Empirical Processes," IEAS Working Paper : academic research 16-A010, Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    45. Melissa Dell, 2010. "The Persistent Effects of Peru's Mining Mita," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 78(6), pages 1863-1903, November.
    46. Imbens, Guido W & Angrist, Joshua D, 1994. "Identification and Estimation of Local Average Treatment Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(2), pages 467-475, March.
    47. Joshua D. Angrist & Victor Lavy & Jetson Leder-Luis & Adi Shany, 2019. "Maimonides' Rule Redux," American Economic Review: Insights, American Economic Association, vol. 1(3), pages 309-324, December.
    48. Guido W. Imbens & Donald B. Rubin, 1997. "Estimating Outcome Distributions for Compliers in Instrumental Variables Models," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(4), pages 555-574.
    49. Yingying Dong & Arthur Lewbel, 2015. "Identifying the Effect of Changing the Policy Threshold in Regression Discontinuity Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 97(5), pages 1081-1092, December.
    50. Chiang, Harold D. & Hsu, Yu-Chin & Sasaki, Yuya, 2019. "Robust uniform inference for quantile treatment effects in regression discontinuity designs," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 211(2), pages 589-618.
    51. Matias D. Cattaneo & Juan Carlos Escanciano (ed.), 2017. "Regression Discontinuity Designs," Advances in Econometrics, Emerald Publishing Ltd, volume 38, number aeco.2017.38.
    52. repec:cwl:cwldpp:1840rr is not listed on IDEAS
    53. Donald W. K. Andrews & Gustavo Soares, 2010. "Inference for Parameters Defined by Moment Inequalities Using Generalized Moment Selection," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 78(1), pages 119-157, January.
    54. Lee, David S., 2008. "Randomized experiments from non-random selection in U.S. House elections," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 675-697, February.
    55. Joshua D. Angrist & Victor Lavy, 1999. "Using Maimonides' Rule to Estimate the Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(2), pages 533-575.
    56. Bierens, Herman J., 1982. "Consistent model specification tests," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 105-134, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Atı̇la Abdulkadı̇roğlu & Joshua D. Angrist & Yusuke Narita & Parag Pathak, 2022. "Breaking Ties: Regression Discontinuity Design Meets Market Design," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 90(1), pages 117-151, January.
    2. Takuya Ishihara & Masayuki Sawada, 2020. "Manipulation-Robust Regression Discontinuity Designs," Papers 2009.07551, arXiv.org, revised May 2022.
    3. Matias D. Cattaneo & Rocio Titiunik & Gonzalo Vazquez-Bare, 2019. "The Regression Discontinuity Design," Papers 1906.04242, arXiv.org, revised Jun 2020.
    4. Acerenza, Santiago & Bartalotti, Otávio & Kedagni, Desire, 2021. "Testing Identifying Assumptions in Bivariate Probit Models," ISU General Staff Papers 202103290700001124, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    5. Yingying DONG & Ying-Ying LEE & Michael GOU, 2019. "Regression Discontinuity Designs with a Continuous Treatment," Discussion papers 19058, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    6. Blaise Melly & Rafael Lalive, 2020. "Estimation, Inference, and Interpretation in the Regression Discontinuity Design," Diskussionsschriften dp2016, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
    7. Mario Fiorini & Katrien Stevens, 2021. "Scrutinizing the Monotonicity Assumption in IV and fuzzy RD designs," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 83(6), pages 1475-1526, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Blaise Melly & Rafael Lalive, 2020. "Estimation, Inference, and Interpretation in the Regression Discontinuity Design," Diskussionsschriften dp2016, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
    2. Matias D. Cattaneo & Rocio Titiunik & Gonzalo Vazquez-Bare, 2019. "The Regression Discontinuity Design," Papers 1906.04242, arXiv.org, revised Jun 2020.
    3. Hsu, Yu-Chin & Shen, Shu, 2019. "Testing treatment effect heterogeneity in regression discontinuity designs," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 208(2), pages 468-486.
    4. Mauricio Villamizar‐Villegas & Freddy A. Pinzon‐Puerto & Maria Alejandra Ruiz‐Sanchez, 2022. "A comprehensive history of regression discontinuity designs: An empirical survey of the last 60 years," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(4), pages 1130-1178, September.
    5. Yu‐Chin Hsu & Shu Shen, 2021. "Testing monotonicity of conditional treatment effects under regression discontinuity designs," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 36(3), pages 346-366, April.
    6. Yang He & Otávio Bartalotti, 2020. "Wild bootstrap for fuzzy regression discontinuity designs: obtaining robust bias-corrected confidence intervals [Using Maimonides’ rule to estimate the effect of class size on scholastic achievemen," The Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 23(2), pages 211-231.
    7. Jun Ma & Zhengfei Yu, 2020. "Empirical Likelihood Covariate Adjustment for Regression Discontinuity Designs," Papers 2008.09263, arXiv.org, revised May 2022.
    8. Huber, Martin, 2019. "An introduction to flexible methods for policy evaluation," FSES Working Papers 504, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Freiburg/Fribourg Switzerland.
    9. Jin-young Choi & Myoung-jae Lee, 2017. "Regression discontinuity: review with extensions," Statistical Papers, Springer, vol. 58(4), pages 1217-1246, December.
    10. Yingying DONG & Ying-Ying LEE & Michael GOU, 2019. "Regression Discontinuity Designs with a Continuous Treatment," Discussion papers 19058, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    11. Chiang, Harold D. & Hsu, Yu-Chin & Sasaki, Yuya, 2019. "Robust uniform inference for quantile treatment effects in regression discontinuity designs," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 211(2), pages 589-618.
    12. Guido Imbens & Stefan Wager, 2019. "Optimized Regression Discontinuity Designs," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 101(2), pages 264-278, May.
    13. Bertanha, Marinho, 2020. "Regression discontinuity design with many thresholds," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 218(1), pages 216-241.
    14. Deng, Taotao & Hu, Yukun & Ma, Mulan, 2019. "Regional policy and tourism: A quasi-natural experiment," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 1-16.
    15. Ivan A Canay & Vishal Kamat, 2018. "Approximate Permutation Tests and Induced Order Statistics in the Regression Discontinuity Design," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 85(3), pages 1577-1608.
    16. Adam C. Sales & Ben B. Hansen, 2020. "Limitless Regression Discontinuity," Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, , vol. 45(2), pages 143-174, April.
    17. Guido W. Imbens & Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2009. "Recent Developments in the Econometrics of Program Evaluation," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(1), pages 5-86, March.
    18. Susan Athey & Guido W. Imbens, 2017. "The State of Applied Econometrics: Causality and Policy Evaluation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 3-32, Spring.
    19. Bertanha, Marinho & Moreira, Marcelo J., 2020. "Impossible inference in econometrics: Theory and applications," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 218(2), pages 247-270.
    20. Mellace, Giovanni & Ventura, Marco, 2019. "Intended and unintended effects of public incentives for innovation. Quasi-experimental evidence from Italy," Discussion Papers on Economics 9/2019, University of Southern Denmark, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fuzzy regression discontinuity design; nonparametric test; inequality restriction; multiplier bootstrap;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • C24 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Threshold Regression Models

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ifs:cemmap:10/19. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cmifsuk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Emma Hyman (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cmifsuk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.