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Driving Factors of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Impact from Kyoto Protocol

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  • Nicole Grunewald

    (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen / Gemany)

  • Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso

    (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen / Germany)

Abstract

In the last two decades increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between environmental quality and economic development. According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis this relationship may be described by an inverted-U curve. However, recent evidence rejects the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions in a broad sense. In this paper we aim to investigate whether the EKC behavior for CO2 emissions could be proved on the behalf of institutional regulations. We analyze the driving factors of Carbon Dioxide Emissions (CO2) for developed and developing countries to test the theory of the EKC in the context of environmental regulations using a static and dynamic panel data model. We consider the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The results from this study indicate that the Kyoto obligations have a reducing effect on CO2 emissions in developed and developing countries and highlight the differences behind the driving forces of CO2 emissions for those two groups of countries. Finally, it is still too early to predict accurately the expected effects of CDM projects on emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicole Grunewald & Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso, 2009. "Driving Factors of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Impact from Kyoto Protocol," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 190, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:got:iaidps:190
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    4. Iwata, Hiroki & Okada, Keisuke, 2010. "Greenhouse gas emissions and the role of the Kyoto Protocol," MPRA Paper 22299, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2013. "The Effect of the Kyoto Protocol on Carbon Emissions," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(4), pages 731-757, September.
    6. Yu‐Fu Chen & Michael Funke, 2010. "Booms, Recessions And Financial Turmoil: A Fresh Look At Investment Decisions Under Cyclical Uncertainty," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 57(3), pages 290-317, July.
    7. Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2011. "What a Difference Kyoto Made: Evidence from Instrumental Variables Estimation," ifo Working Paper Series 102, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    8. Aidy Halimanjaya & Elissaios Papyrakis, 2015. "Donor Characteristics And The Allocation Of Aid To Climate Mitigation Finance," Climate Change Economics (CCE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 6(03), pages 1-25.
    9. Nepal, Rabindra & Tisdell, Clem & Jamasb, Tooraj, 2017. "Economic Reforms and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in European and Central Asian Transition Economies," Economics, Ecology and Environment Working Papers 253076, University of Queensland, School of Economics.
    10. Sencer Atasoy, Burak, 2017. "Testing the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis across the U.S.: Evidence from panel mean group estimators," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 731-747.
    11. Sheldon, Tamara L., 2017. "Asymmetric effects of the business cycle on carbon dioxide emissions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 289-297.
    12. Puspaning Buanawaty & Fithra Faisal Hastiadi, 2017. "The Impact of Kyoto Protocol on Environment Quality in the Free Trade Era: Case of G20 Countries," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 7(3), pages 36-42.
    13. WenShwo Fang & Stephen M. Miller, 2013. "The effect of ESCO s on carbon dioxide emissions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(34), pages 4796-4804, December.
    14. Nepal, Rabindra & Jamasb, Tooraj & Tisdell, Clement Allan, 2017. "On environmental impacts of market-based reforms: Evidence from the European and Central Asian transition economies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 44-52.
    15. Hasanov, Fakhri J. & Bulut, Cihan & Suleymanov, Elchin, 2016. "Do population age groups matter in the energy use of the oil-exporting countries?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 82-99.
    16. Jeyhun Mikayilov & Vusal Shukurov & Shahriyar Mukhtarov & Sabuhi Yusifov, 2017. "Does Urbanization Boost Pollution from Transport?," Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, Mendel University Press, vol. 65(5), pages 1709-1718.
    17. Bölük, Gülden & Mert, Mehmet, 2015. "The renewable energy, growth and environmental Kuznets curve in Turkey: An ARDL approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 587-595.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental Kuznets Curve; Kyoto Protocol; CDM;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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