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A General Framework for Estimating CO2 Emissions

This paper proposes a new analytical framework with which to analyze the determinants of global CO2 emissions. It contributes to the existing literature by examining the determinants of CO2 emissions using a flexible functional form (transcendental logarithmic model), taking into account the presence of dynamic effects and allowing for heterogeneity in the sample of countries. The sample covers 121 countries and the period analyzed extends from 1975 through 2003. Two main results emerge. First, a static specification is rejected against a dynamic model. Second, the data also reject a general specification for all countries; hence slopeheterogeneity in the estimated coefficients has to be modeled. Conversely, the STIRPAT model is generally accepted for high-income countries, whereas for developing countries several interaction terms also play a role in explaining CO2 emissions.

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File URL: http://www2.vwl.wiso.uni-goettingen.de/ibero/working_paper_neu/DB180.pdf
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Paper provided by Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research in its series Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers with number 180.

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Length: 34 pages
Date of creation: 12 Feb 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:got:iaidps:180
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  1. Auffhammer, Maximilian & Carson, Richard Taylor, 2004. "Forecasting the path of China's CO2 emissions using province level information," CUDARE Working Paper Series 0971, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy, revised 2007.
  2. Shi, Anqing, 2003. "The impact of population pressure on global carbon dioxide emissions, 1975-1996: evidence from pooled cross-country data," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 29-42, February.
  3. Stern , David I., 1998. "Progress on the environmental Kuznets curve?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(02), pages 173-196, May.
  4. David I. Stern, 2003. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0302, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
  5. Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso & Aurelia Bengochea-Morancho & Rafael Morales-Lage, 2006. "The Impact of Population on CO2 Emissions: Evidence From European Countries," Working Papers 2006.98, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  6. Rafael E. De Hoyos & Vasilis Sarafidis, 2006. "Testing for cross-sectional dependence in panel-data models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 6(4), pages 482-496, December.
  7. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2006. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogeneous Panels with a Multifactor Error Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(4), pages 967-1012, 07.
  8. York, Richard & Rosa, Eugene A. & Dietz, Thomas, 2003. "STIRPAT, IPAT and ImPACT: analytic tools for unpacking the driving forces of environmental impacts," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 351-365, October.
  9. Bruno, Giovanni S.F., 2005. "Approximating the bias of the LSDV estimator for dynamic unbalanced panel data models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 361-366, June.
  10. Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2004. "General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels," IZA Discussion Papers 1240, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Mark E Schaffer, 2005. "XTIVREG2: Stata module to perform extended IV/2SLS, GMM and AC/HAC, LIML and k-class regression for panel data models," Statistical Software Components S456501, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 22 Feb 2015.
  12. Hamilton, Clive & Turton, Hal, 2002. "Determinants of emissions growth in OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 63-71, January.
  13. Lantz, V. & Feng, Q., 2006. "Assessing income, population, and technology impacts on CO2 emissions in Canada: Where's the EKC?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 229-238, May.
  14. Perman, Roger & Stern, David I., 2003. "Evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not exist," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 47(3), September.
  15. Cole, M.A. & Rayner, A.J. & Bates, J.M., 1997. "The environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical analysis," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 401-416, November.
  16. Stavins, Robert N & Jaffe, Adam B, 1990. "Unintended Impacts of Public Investments on Private Decisions: The Depletion of Forested Wetlands," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 337-52, June.
  17. Vasilis Sarafidis & Donald Robertson, 2009. "On the impact of error cross-sectional dependence in short dynamic panel estimation," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 12(1), pages 62-81, 03.
  18. Annegrete Bruvoll & Hege Medin, 2003. "Factors Behind the Environmental Kuznets Curve. A Decomposition of the Changes in Air Pollution," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 24(1), pages 27-48, January.
  19. Bun, Maurice J. G. & Kiviet, Jan F., 2003. "On the diminishing returns of higher-order terms in asymptotic expansions of bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 145-152, May.
  20. Galeotti, Marzio & Lanza, Alessandro, 1999. "Richer and cleaner? A study on carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(10), pages 565-573, October.
  21. Frees, Edward W., 1995. "Assessing cross-sectional correlation in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 393-414, October.
  22. James Cramer, 1998. "Population growth and air quality in California," Demography, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 45-56, February.
  23. Kiviet, Jan F., 1995. "On bias, inconsistency, and efficiency of various estimators in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 53-78, July.
  24. Kajal Lahiri, 2005. "Analysis of Panel Data," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(4), pages 1093-1095.
  25. Matthew A. Cole & Eric Neumayer, 2003. "Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors On Air Pollution," Labor and Demography 0312005, EconWPA, revised 13 May 2004.
  26. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521535380 is not listed on IDEAS
  27. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521828284 is not listed on IDEAS
  28. Agras, Jean & Chapman, Duane, 1999. "A dynamic approach to the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 267-277, February.
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