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How well did the Kyoto Protocol work? A dynamic-GMM approach with external instruments

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Abstract

This paper assesses the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on CO2 emissions. With this aim a dynamic panel data model is estimated for a cross-section of 213 countries over the period 1960 to 2009. The model, based on a STIRPAT approach, also integrates the EKC approach and specifically considers the endogeneity of the policy variable. To sort out causality the number of financed CDM projects is used as an external instrument. The main results indicate that obligations from the Kyoto Protocol have a measurable reducing effect on CO2 emissions and indicate that a treaty often seen as "failed" in fact may be producing some non-trivial effects.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicole Grunewald & Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso, 2011. "How well did the Kyoto Protocol work? A dynamic-GMM approach with external instruments," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 212, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:got:iaidps:212
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    File URL: http://www2.vwl.wiso.uni-goettingen.de/ibero/working_paper_neu/DB212.pdf
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    Cited by:

    1. Hasanov, Fakhri J. & Bulut, Cihan & Suleymanov, Elchin, 2016. "Do population age groups matter in the energy use of the oil-exporting countries?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 82-99.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental Kuznets Curve; Kyoto Protocol; panel data; Clean Development Mechanism;

    JEL classification:

    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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