IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

A Regional Perspective on Inequality and Growth in Portugal Using Panel Cointegration Analysis

  • Marta Simões

    ()

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal)

  • João Sousa Andrade

    ()

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal)

  • Adelaide Duarte

    ()

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra and GEMF, Portugal)

This paper examines the relationship between inequality and economic growth for thirty Portuguese NUTS3 regions within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1995-2007, using panel cointegration techniques to test for the existence of a relationship between inequality and real GDP per capita. The results point to the existence of a relationship between the variables, where the effect of inequality, measured as the Gini index of the earnings distribution, on per capita output is negative. This negative influence seems to be determined by the behavior of the bottom of the earnings distribution, most likely by dampening investment in human capital, with the results pointing to the coexistence of a positive impact of inequality at the top of the distribution, supporting the incentives argument for the inequality-growth nexus. Additionally, the results confirm the predicted positive relationship between human capital and output, lending support to both the exogenous and endogenous growth models predictions on the importance of human capital for production both as inputs in the production of final goods and in the production of technology. Another interesting result concerns structural funds: we found a negative relation of this variable with regional output. We believe that EU structural funds were a source of Dutch disease for Portugal, which resulted mainly in a lack of external competitiveness of the Portuguese economy due to the excessive specialization in non-tradable goods made possible by the European funds.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://gemf.fe.uc.pt/workingpapers/pdf/2013/gemf_2013-13.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by GEMF - Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra in its series GEMF Working Papers with number 2013-13.

as
in new window

Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2013
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in International Economics and Economic Policy 10(3): 427-451, 2013.
Handle: RePEc:gmf:wpaper:2013-13.
Contact details of provider: Postal: Av. Dias da Silva, 165, 3004-512 COIMBRA
Phone: + 351 239 790 500
Fax: +351 239 403511
Web page: http://www.uc.pt/en/feuc/gemf/Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Panizza, Ugo, 2002. " Income Inequality and Economic Growth: Evidence from American Data," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 25-41, March.
  2. Perotti, Roberto & Alesina, Alberto, 1996. "Income Distribution, Political Instability, and Investment," Scholarly Articles 4553018, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  3. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
  4. Alberto Alesina & Dani Rodrik, 1991. "Distributive Politics and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3668, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Nelson C. Mark & Donggyu Sul, 2002. "Cointegration Vector Estimation by Panel DOLS and Long-Run Money Demand," NBER Technical Working Papers 0287, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  7. Andrés Rodríguez-Pose & Vassilis Tselios, 2010. "Inequalities in income and education and regional economic growth in western Europe," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 349-375, April.
  8. Aghion, Philippe & Caroli, Eve & Garcia-Penalosa, Cecilia, 1999. "Inequality and economic growth: the perspective of the new growth theories," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9908, CEPREMAP.
  9. Mankiw, N Gregory & Romer, David & Weil, David N, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-37, May.
  10. Clarke, George R. G., 1995. "More evidence on income distribution and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 403-427, August.
  11. Pasaran, M.H. & Im, K.S. & Shin, Y., 1995. "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9526, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  12. Raghuram G. Rajan & Arvind Subramanian, 2009. "Aid, Dutch Disease, and Manufacturing Growth," Working Papers 196, Center for Global Development.
  13. Benhabib, Jess & Spiegel, Mark M., 1994. "The role of human capital in economic development evidence from aggregate cross-country data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 143-173, October.
  14. Frédéric Laurin, 2012. "Trade and regional growth in Spain: panel cointegration in a small sample," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(4), pages 435-447, February.
  15. Easterly, William & Rebelo, Sergio, 1993. "Marginal income tax rates and economic growth in developing countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 409-417, April.
  16. Kaddour Hadri, 1999. "Testing For Stationarity In Heterogeneous Panel Data," Research Papers 1999_04, University of Liverpool Management School.
  17. Mark D. Partridge, 2005. "Does Income Distribution Affect U.S. State Economic Growth?," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(2), pages 363-394.
  18. Kristin J. Forbes, 2000. "A Reassessment of the Relationship between Inequality and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 869-887, September.
  19. Aschauer, David Alan, 1989. "Does public capital crowd out private capital?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 171-188, September.
  20. Bertola, Giuseppe, 1991. "Factor Shares and Savings In Endogenous Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 576, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  21. Alesina, Alberto & Perotti, Roberto, 1996. "Income distribution, political instability, and investment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1203-1228, June.
  22. Banerjee, Abhijit V & Duflo, Esther, 2003. " Inequality and Growth: What Can the Data Say?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 267-99, September.
  23. Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1998. "New ways of looking at old issues: inequality and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 259-287.
  24. Barbara Sianesi & John Van Reenen, 2003. "The Returns to Education: Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 157-200, 04.
  25. Hongyi Li & Lyn Squire & Tao Zhang & Heng-fu Zou, 1999. "A Data Set on Income Distribution," CEMA Working Papers 575, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
  26. Harris, Richard D. F. & Tzavalis, Elias, 1999. "Inference for unit roots in dynamic panels where the time dimension is fixed," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 201-226, August.
  27. Tuomas Malinen, 2012. "Estimating the long-run relationship between income inequality and economic development," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 209-233, February.
  28. Laura de Dominicis & Raymond J. G. M. Florax & Henri L. F. de Groot, 2008. "A Meta-Analysis On The Relationship Between Income Inequality And Economic Growth," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 55(5), pages 654-682, November.
  29. Balisacan, Arsenio M. & Fuwa, Nobuhiko, 2003. "Growth, inequality and politics revisited: a developing-country case," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 53-58, April.
  30. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 2013. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Working Papers 2013-12, Brown University, Department of Economics.
  31. Levine, Ross & Renelt, David, 1991. "A sensitivity analysis of cross-country growth regressions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 609, The World Bank.
  32. João Gabriel Fidalgo & Marta Simões & Adelaide Duarte, 2010. "Mind the Gap: Education Inequality at the Regional Level in Portugal, 1986-2005," Notas Económicas, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra, issue 32, pages 22-43, December.
  33. Chen, Been-Lon, 2003. "An inverted-U relationship between inequality and long-run growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 205-212, February.
  34. Mark Frank, 2009. "Income Inequality, Human Capital, and Income Growth: Evidence from a State-Level VAR Analysis," Atlantic Economic Journal, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 37(2), pages 173-185, June.
  35. Bleaney, Michael & Nishiyama, Akira, 2004. "Income inequality and growth--does the relationship vary with the income level?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 84(3), pages 349-355, September.
  36. Niko Gobbin & Glenn Rayp, 2008. "Different ways of looking at old issues: a time-series approach to inequality and growth," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(7), pages 885-895.
  37. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1997. "I Just Ran Two Million Regressions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 178-83, May.
  38. Saikkonen, Pentti, 1991. "Asymptotically Efficient Estimation of Cointegration Regressions," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(01), pages 1-21, March.
  39. Elias Soukiazis & Micaela Antunes, 2006. "Two Speed Regional Convergence In Portugal And the Importance of Structural Funds on Growth," Ekonomia, Cyprus Economic Society and University of Cyprus, vol. 9(2), pages 222-241, Winter.
  40. Danny Quah, 1993. "Exploiting Cross Section Variation for Unit Root Inference in Dynamic Data," FMG Discussion Papers dp171, Financial Markets Group.
  41. Aadne Cappelen & Fulvio Castellacci & Jan Fagerberg & Bart Verspagen, 2003. "The Impact of EU Regional Support on Growth and Convergence in the European Union," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41, pages 621-644, 09.
  42. Catarina Cardoso & Eric J. Pentecost, 2011. "Regional Growth and Convergence: The Role of Human Capital in the Portuguese Regions," Discussion Paper Series 2011_03, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Sep 2011.
  43. Afonso, António & St. Aubyn, Miguel, 2008. "Macroeconomic rates of return of public and private investment: crowding-in and crowding-out effects," Working Paper Series 0864, European Central Bank.
  44. Sarah Voitchovsky, 2005. "Does the Profile of Income Inequality Matter for Economic Growth?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 273-296, 09.
  45. Partridge, Mark D, 1997. "Is Inequality Harmful for Growth? Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(5), pages 1019-32, December.
  46. Peter Pedroni, 2001. "Purchasing Power Parity Tests In Cointegrated Panels," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(4), pages 727-731, November.
  47. Eberhardt, Markus & Teal, Francis, 2013. "Structural change and cross-country growth empirics," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6335, The World Bank.
  48. Corden, W Max & Neary, J Peter, 1982. "Booming Sector and De-Industrialisation in a Small Open Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(368), pages 825-48, December.
  49. Barro, Robert J, 2000. " Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 5-32, March.
  50. João Sousa Andrade & Adelaide Duarte & Marta Simões, 2011. "Inequality and Growth in Portugal: a time series analysis," GEMF Working Papers 2011-11, GEMF - Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra.
  51. Alessandro Turrini, 2004. "Public investment and the EU fiscal framework," European Economy - Economic Papers 202, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  52. Francis Teal & Markus Eberhardt, 2009. "Econometrics for Grumblers: A New Look at the Literature on Cross-Country Growth Empirics," Economics Series Working Papers CSAE WPS/2009-07, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  53. Belal Fallah & Mark Partridge, 2007. "The elusive inequality-economic growth relationship: are there differences between cities and the countryside?," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 375-400, June.
  54. Klaus Deininger & Lyn Squire, 1996. "A New Data Set Measuring Income Inequality," CEMA Working Papers 512, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
  55. Miguel Márquez & Julián Ramajo & Geoffrey Hewings, 2010. "A spatio-temporal econometric model of regional growth in Spain," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 207-226, June.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gmf:wpaper:2013-13.. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sara Santos)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.