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Bank Liquidity Provision across the Firm Size Distribution

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Abstract

Using loan-level data covering two-thirds of all corporate loans from U.S. banks, we document that SMEs (i) obtain much shorter maturity credit lines than large firms; (ii) have less active maturity management and therefore frequently have expiring credit; (iii) post more collateral on both credit lines and term loans; (iv) have higher utilization rates in normal times; and (v) pay higher spreads, even conditional on other firm characteristics. We present a theory of loan terms that rationalizes these facts as the equilibrium outcome of a trade-off between commitment and discretion. We test the model’s prediction that small firms may be unable to access liquidity when large shocks arrive using data on drawdowns in the COVID recession. Consistent with the theory, the increase in bank credit in 2020:Q1 and 2020:Q2 came almost entirely from drawdowns by large firms on pre-committed lines of credit. Differences in demand for liquidity cannot fully explain the differences in drawdown rates by firm size, as we show that large firms also exhibited much higher sensitivity of drawdowns to industry-level measures of exposure to the COVID recession. Finally, we match the bank data to a list of participants in the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) and show that SME recipients of PPP loans reduced their non-PPP bank borrowing in 2020:Q2 by between 53 and 125 percent of the amount of their PPP funds, suggesting that government-sponsored liquidity can overcome private credit constraints.

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  • Gabriel Chodorow-Reich & Olivier M. Darmouni & Stephan Luck & Matthew Plosser, 2020. "Bank Liquidity Provision across the Firm Size Distribution," Staff Reports 942, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:88956
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    Cited by:

    1. Judit Temesvary & Andrew Wei, 2021. "Domestic Lending and the Pandemic: How Does Banks' Exposure to Covid-19 Abroad Affect Their Lending in the United States?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2021-056, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    2. W. Blake Marsh & Padma Sharma, 2021. "Government Loan Guarantees during a Crisis: The Effect of the PPP on Bank Lending and Profitability," Research Working Paper RWP 21-03, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
    3. repec:aei:rpaper:1008582843 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Acharya, Viral V. & Engle III, Robert F & Steffen, Sascha, 2021. "Why did bank stocks crash during COVID-19?," CEPR Discussion Papers 15901, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Bernhardt, Dan & Koufopoulos, Kostas & Trigilia, Giulio, 2021. "Separating equilibria, under-pricing and security design," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1329, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    6. Lei Li & Philip Strahan, 2020. "Who Supplies PPP Loans (And Does it Matter)? Banks, Relationships and the COVID Crisis," NBER Working Papers 28286, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Jorge Pozo & Youel Rojas, 2021. "Unconventional Credit Policy in an Economy under Zero Lower Bound," IHEID Working Papers 14-2021, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    8. José-Luis Peydró & Andrea Polo & Enrico Sette, 2020. "Risk Mitigating versus Risk Shifting: Evidence from Banks Security Trading in Crises," Working Papers 1219, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    9. R. Glenn Hubbard & Michael R. Strain, 2020. "Has the Paycheck Protection Program Succeeded?," NBER Working Papers 28032, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. W. Blake Marsh & Padma Sharma, 2020. "PPP Raised Community Bank Revenue but Lowered Profitability," Economic Bulletin, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 1-5, December.
    11. Dmitry Khametshin, 2021. "High-yield bond markets during the COVID-19 crisis: the role of monetary policy," Occasional Papers 2110, Banco de España.
    12. Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas & Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Veronika Penciakova & Nick Sander, 2021. "COVID-19 and SMEs: A 2021 "Time Bomb"?," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2021-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    13. Bernhardt, Dan & Koufopoulos, Kostas & Trigilia, Giulio, 2021. "Profiting from the poor in competitive lending markets with adverse selection," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1328, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    14. Jose M. Berrospide & Arun Gupta & Matthew P. Seay, 2021. "Un-used Bank Capital Buffers and Credit Supply Shocks at SMEs during the Pandemic," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2021-043, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    liquidity provision; macro-finance; credit; financial constraints; loan terms; banking; credit lines; COVID-19;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G00 - Financial Economics - - General - - - General
    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • G30 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - General

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