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Deposit interest rate ceilings as credit supply shifters: bank level evidence on the effects of Regulation Q

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  • Christoffer Koch

Abstract

Shocks emanating from and propagating through the banking system have recently gained interest in the macroeconomics literature, yet they are not a feature unique to the 2008/09 financial crisis. Banking disintermediation shocks occured frequently during the Great Inflation era due to fixed deposit rate ceilings. I estimate the effect of deposit rate ceilings inscribed in Regulation Q on the transmission of federal funds rate changes to bank level credit growth using a historic bank level data set spanning half a century from 1959 to 2013 with about two million observations. Measures of the degree of bindingness of Regulation Q suggest that individual banks? lending growth was smaller the more binding the legally fixed rate ceiling. Interaction terms with monetary policy suggest that the policy impact on bank level credit growth was non-linear at the ceiling ?kink? and significantly larger when rate ceilings were in place. At the bank level, short-term interest rates exceeding the legally fixed deposit rate ceilings identify bank loan supply shifts that disappeared with deposit rate deregulation and thus weakened the credit channel of monetary transmission since the early 1980s.

Suggested Citation

  • Christoffer Koch, 2014. "Deposit interest rate ceilings as credit supply shifters: bank level evidence on the effects of Regulation Q," Working Papers 1406, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:feddwp:1406
    DOI: 10.24149/wp1406
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    Cited by:

    1. Pavon-Prado, David, 2019. "Have we been measuring monetary policy correctly? Analysing the Federal Reserve’s policies over the last century," IFCS - Working Papers in Economic History.WH 28342, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Figuerola.
    2. Jiang, Yonghong & He, Luli & Meng, Juan & Nie, He, 2019. "Nonlinear impact of economic policy uncertainty shocks on credit scale: Evidence from China," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 521(C), pages 626-634.
    3. Eric Monnet & Miklos Vari, 2019. "Liquidity Ratios as Monetary Policy Tools: Some Historical Lessons for Macroprudential Policy," IMF Working Papers 2019/176, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Carlson, Mark & Wheelock, David C., 2018. "Near-money premiums, monetary policy, and the integration of money markets: Lessons from deregulation," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 16-32.
    5. John C. Bluedorn & Christopher Bowdler & Christoffer Koch, 2017. "Heterogeneous Bank Lending Responses to Monetary Policy: New Evidence from a Real-Time Identification," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 13(1), pages 95-149, February.
    6. Jingya Li & Ming-Hua Liu, 2019. "Interest rate liberalization and pass-through of monetary policy rate to bank lending rates in China," Frontiers of Business Research in China, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 1-19, December.
    7. Paulo Esteves & Maximiano Pinheiro, 2020. "Deposit interest rate ceilings," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles and Banco de Portugal Economic Studies, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    8. Bordo, Michael D. & Duca, John V. & Koch, Christoffer, 2016. "Economic policy uncertainty and the credit channel: Aggregate and bank level U.S. evidence over several decades," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 90-106.
    9. Sun, Rongrong, 2018. "Requiem for the Interest-Rate Controls in China," MPRA Paper 87700, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Monetary Transmission; Lending Channel; Regulation Q; Deregulation; Great Moderation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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