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Deposit interest rate ceilings as credit supply shifters: Bank level evidence on the effects of Regulation Q

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  • Koch, Christoffer

Abstract

How did deposit interest rate ceilings, an important feature of the U.S. regulatory regime until the mid-1980s, affect individual banks’ lending and the transmission of monetary policy to credit? I estimate the effect of deposit rate ceilings inscribed in Regulation Q on commercial banks’ credit growth using a historical bank level data set starting in 1959. Banks’ credit growth contracted sharply when legally fixed deposit rate ceilings were binding. Interaction terms with monetary policy suggest that the policy impact on bank level credit growth was non-linear and significantly larger when rate ceilings were in place. Bank size and capitalization mitigate these effects. At the bank level, short-term interest rates exceeding the legally fixed deposit rate ceilings identify policy induced credit supply shifts that disappeared with deposit rate deregulation and thus weakened the bank lending channel substantially since the early 1980s.

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  • Koch, Christoffer, 2015. "Deposit interest rate ceilings as credit supply shifters: Bank level evidence on the effects of Regulation Q," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 316-326.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:61:y:2015:i:c:p:316-326
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2015.09.006
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    Cited by:

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    2. John C. Bluedorn & Christopher Bowdler & Christoffer Koch, 2017. "Heterogeneous Bank Lending Responses to Monetary Policy: New Evidence from a Real-Time Identification," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 13(1), pages 95-149, February.
    3. Jingya Li & Ming-Hua Liu, 2019. "Interest rate liberalization and pass-through of monetary policy rate to bank lending rates in China," Frontiers of Business Research in China, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 1-19, December.
    4. Pavon-Prado, David, 2019. "Have we been measuring monetary policy correctly? Analysing the Federal Reserve’s policies over the last century," IFCS - Working Papers in Economic History.WH 28342, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Figuerola.
    5. Eric Monnet & Miklos Vari, 2019. "Liquidity Ratios as Monetary Policy Tools: Some Historical Lessons for Macroprudential Policy," IMF Working Papers 19/176, International Monetary Fund.
    6. Jiang, Yonghong & He, Luli & Meng, Juan & Nie, He, 2019. "Nonlinear impact of economic policy uncertainty shocks on credit scale: Evidence from China," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 521(C), pages 626-634.
    7. Paulo Esteves & Maximiano Pinheiro, 2020. "Deposit interest rate ceilings," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles and Banco de Portugal Economic Studies, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    8. Bordo, Michael D. & Duca, John V. & Koch, Christoffer, 2016. "Economic policy uncertainty and the credit channel: Aggregate and bank level U.S. evidence over several decades," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 90-106.
    9. Sun, Rongrong, 2018. "Requiem for the Interest-Rate Controls in China," MPRA Paper 87700, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Monetary transmission; Lending channel; Deregulation; Regulation Q;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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