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Models of Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates Revisited: A Selective Review of the Literature


  • Ramkishen S. Rajan


  • Reza Y. Siregar



One of the more important concepts in open macroeconomics is the “equilibrium real exchange rate†(ERER). Real exchange rate misalignments are argued to have been the cause of loss of competitiveness and growth slowdowns and eventual currency crises (in the event of sustained overvaluations), overheating (in the event of sustained undervaluation), sectoral misallocation of resources, and global macroeconomic imbalances. This paper examines the underlying concepts, assumptions and analytical bases of commonly employed models of the equilibrium real exchange rate and the manner in which they are usually computed (i.e. operationalized) as well as their shortcomings.

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  • Ramkishen S. Rajan & Reza Y. Siregar, 2007. "Models of Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates Revisited: A Selective Review of the Literature," Working Papers id:1198, eSocialSciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:1198
    Note: Working Papers

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Seghezza, Elena & Morelli, Pierluigi & Pittaluga, Giovanni B., 2017. "Reserve accumulation and exchange rate policy in China: The authoritarian elite's aim of political survival," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 163-174.
    2. Pavel Trunin & Dmitriy Kniazev & Ekaterina Kuduykina, 2010. "Perspective issues in the CBR`s exchange rate policy," Research Paper Series, Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, issue 144P.
    3. Siregar, Reza Yamora & Goo, Siwei, 2010. "Effectiveness and commitment to inflation targeting policy: Evidence from Indonesia and Thailand," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 113-128, April.
    4. Fidora, Michael & Giordano, Claire & Schmitz, Martin, 2017. "Real exchange rate misalignments in the euro area," Working Paper Series 2108, European Central Bank.
    5. Hasanov, Fakhri, 2009. "Analyzing price level in a booming economy: the case of Azerbaijan," MPRA Paper 29555, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Wright, Nicholas Anthony, 2013. "Examining measures of the equilibrium Real Exchange Rate: Macroeconomic Balance and the Natural Real Exchange Rate Approaches," MPRA Paper 61170, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Brankica Pažun & Zlatko Langović & Ana Langovic Milićević, 2016. "Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate Assessment of the Serbian Dinar: The MB approach," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(1), pages 76-87, March.
    8. Darryl McLeod & Elitza Mileva, 2011. "Real Exchange Rates and Growth Surges," Fordham Economics Discussion Paper Series dp2011-04, Fordham University, Department of Economics.
    9. Kym Anderson & Will Martin & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe, 2007. "China, the WTO, and the Doha Agenda," Centre for International Economic Studies Working Papers 2007-02, University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies.

    More about this item


    real exchange rates; ERER; macroeconomic imbalances;

    JEL classification:

    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements


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