IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/eie/wpaper/1319.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Collateral Equilibrium - A Basic Framework

Author

Listed:
  • John Geanakoplos

    (Yale University)

  • William Zame

    (University of California, Los Angeles)

Abstract

Much of the lending in modern economies is secured by some form of collateral; residential and commercial mortgages and corporate bonds are familiar examples. This paper builds an extension of general equilibrium theory that incorporates durable goods, collateralized securities and the possibility of default to argue that the reliance on collateral to secure loans and the particular collateral requirements chosen by the social planner or by the market have a profound impact on prices, allocations, market structure and the efficiency of market outcomes. These findings provide insights into housing and mortgage markets, including the sub-prime mortgage market.

Suggested Citation

  • John Geanakoplos & William Zame, 2013. "Collateral Equilibrium - A Basic Framework," EIEF Working Papers Series 1319, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Aug 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:eie:wpaper:1319
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.eief.it/files/2013/09/wp-19-collateral-equilibrium-a-basic-framework.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Polemarchakis, H. M. & Ku, Bon-Il, 1990. "Options and equilibrium," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 107-112.
    2. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1996. "The Financial Accelerator and the Flight to Quality," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(1), pages 1-15, February.
    3. Pradeep Dubey & John Geanakoplos & Martin Shubik, 2005. "Default and Punishment in General Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 73(1), pages 1-37, January.
    4. Magill, Michael & Quinzii, Martine, 1994. "Infinite Horizon Incomplete Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 853-880, July.
    5. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1997. "Financial Intermediation, Loanable Funds, and The Real Sector," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 663-691.
    6. Johannes Brumm & Michael Grill & Felix Kubler & Karl Schmedders, 2015. "Collateral Requirements And Asset Prices," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 56(1), pages 1-25, February.
    7. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Moore, John, 1997. "Credit Cycles," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(2), pages 211-248, April.
    8. Hanno N. Lustig & Stijn G. Van Nieuwerburgh, 2005. "Housing Collateral, Consumption Insurance, and Risk Premia: An Empirical Perspective," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1167-1219, June.
    9. Aloisio Araujo & Mário Rui Páscoa & Juan Pablo Torres-Martínez, 2002. "Collateral Avoids Ponzi Schemes in Incomplete Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(4), pages 1613-1638, July.
    10. Ana Fostel & John Geanakoplos, 2012. "Tranching, CDS, and Asset Prices: How Financial Innovation Can Cause Bubbles and Crashes," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 190-225, January.
    11. Kristopher S. Gerardi & Adam Hale Shapiro & Paul S. Willen, 2007. "Subprime outcomes: risky mortgages, homeownership experiences, and foreclosures," Working Papers 07-15, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    12. Duffie, Darrell & Shafer, Wayne, 1986. "Equilibrium in incomplete markets: II : Generic existence in stochastic economies," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 199-216, June.
    13. Araujo, Aloisio & Fajardo, Jose & Pascoa, Mario R., 2005. "Endogenous collateral," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(4-5), pages 439-462, August.
    14. Levine, David K. & Zame, William R., 1996. "Debt constraints and equilibrium in infinite horizon economies with incomplete markets," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 103-131.
    15. Scott Fay & Erik Hurst & Michelle J. White, 2002. "The Household Bankruptcy Decision," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(3), pages 706-718, June.
    16. Araújo, Aloísio & Kubler, Felix & Schommer, Susan, 2012. "Regulating collateral-requirements when markets are incomplete," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 147(2), pages 450-476.
    17. Zame, William R, 1993. "Efficiency and the Role of Default When Security Markets Are Incomplete," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1142-1164, December.
    18. Timothy J. Kehoe & David K. Levine, 1993. "Debt-Constrained Asset Markets," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(4), pages 865-888.
    19. Ana Fostel & John Geanakoplos, 2013. "Leverage and Default in Binomial Economies: A Complete Characterization," Working Papers 2013-16, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
    20. Hart, Oliver D., 1975. "On the optimality of equilibrium when the market structure is incomplete," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 418-443, December.
    21. John Geanakoplos & Ana Fostel, 2008. "Leverage Cycles and the Anxious Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1211-1244, September.
    22. Lagos, Ricardo, 2010. "Asset prices and liquidity in an exchange economy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(8), pages 913-930, November.
    23. Hellwig, Martin F, 1981. "Bankruptcy, Limited Liability, and the Modigliani-Miller Theorem," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(1), pages 155-170, March.
    24. Mankiw, N. Gregory & Weil, David N., 1989. "The baby boom, the baby bust, and the housing market," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 235-258, May.
    25. Weerachart Kilenthong, 2011. "Collateral premia and risk sharing under limited commitment," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 46(3), pages 475-501, April.
    26. Ana Fostel & John Geanakoplos, 2012. "Leverage and Default in Binomial Economies: A Complete Characterization," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1877R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Jul 2013.
    27. Kau James B. & Keenan Donald C. & Kim Taewon, 1994. "Default Probabilities for Mortgages," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 278-296, May.
    28. Elul, Ronel, 1999. "Effectively complete equilibria--A note," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 113-119, August.
    29. Alp Simsek, 2013. "Belief Disagreements and Collateral Constraints," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(1), pages 1-53, January.
    30. Lin, Emily Y. & White, Michelle J., 2001. "Bankruptcy and the Market for Mortgage and Home Improvement Loans," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 138-162, July.
    31. Ana Fostel & John Geanakoplos, 2013. "Leverage and Default in Binomial Economies: A Complete Characterization," Levine's Working Paper Archive 786969000000000755, David K. Levine.
    32. Duffie, Darrell & Shafer, Wayne, 1985. "Equilibrium in incomplete markets: I : A basic model of generic existence," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 285-300, June.
    33. Steinert, Mariano & Torres-Martinez, Juan Pablo, 2007. "General equilibrium in CLO markets," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(6), pages 709-734, August.
    34. Hernandez D., Alejandro & Santos, Manuel S., 1996. "Competitive Equilibria for Infinite-Horizon Economies with Incomplete Markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 102-130, October.
    35. Ana Fostel & John Geanakoplos, 2013. "Financial Innovation, Collateral and Investment," Working Papers 2013-18, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
    36. Sabarwal Tarun, 2003. "Competitive Equilibria With Incomplete Markets and Endogenous Bankruptcy," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-42, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Martins-da-Rocha, V. Filipe & Vailakis, Yiannis, 2012. "Endogenous debt constraints in collateralized economies with default penalties," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 1-13.
    2. Iraola, Miguel & Torres-Martínez, Juan Pablo, 2013. "Liquidity Contractions, Incomplete Financial Participation and the Prevalence of Negative Equity Non-recourse Loans," MPRA Paper 46838, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Rubén Poblete-Cazenave & Juan Torres-Martínez, 2013. "Equilibrium with limited-recourse collateralized loans," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 53(1), pages 181-211, May.
    4. Martins-da-Rocha, Victor Filipe & Vailakis, Yiannis, 2010. "Competitive equilibria in infinite-horizon collateralized economies with default penalties," FGV EPGE Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 703, EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance - FGV EPGE (Brazil).
    5. Wei Ma, 2015. "A Constructive Proof of the Existence of Collateral Equilibrium for a Two-Period Exchange Economy Based on a Smooth Interior-Point Path," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 45(1), pages 1-30, January.
    6. Geanakoplos, John, 2014. "Leverage, Default, and Forgiveness: Lessons from the American and European Crises," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 313-333.
    7. Felipe Martins-da-Rocha & Yiannis Vailakis, 2008. "Collateral, default penalties and almost finite-time solvency," Levine's Working Paper Archive 122247000000002049, David K. Levine.
    8. Páscoa, Mário Rui & Seghir, Abdelkrim, 2009. "Harsh default penalties lead to Ponzi schemes," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 270-286, January.
    9. Iraola, Miguel A. & Torres-Martínez, Juan Pablo, 2014. "Equilibrium in collateralized asset markets: Credit contractions and negative equity loans," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 113-122.
    10. Orrillo, Jaime, 2009. "Making promises in infinite-horizon economies with default and collateral," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), Elsevier, vol. 79(10), pages 3055-3068.
    11. Bottazzi, Jean-Marc & Luque, Jaime & Páscoa, Mário R., 2012. "Securities market theory: Possession, repo and rehypothecation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 147(2), pages 477-500.
    12. Phelan, Gregory & Toda, Alexis Akira, 2019. "Securitized markets, international capital flows, and global welfare," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 131(3), pages 571-592.
    13. Gaël Giraud, 2010. "Financial Crashes versus liquidity trap: the dilemma of monetary policy," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 10014, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    14. repec:fgv:epgrbe:v:67:n:3:a:3 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Feijó, Ricardo Luis Chaves, 2013. "The General Equilibrium Framework with Default and Collateral," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance - FGV EPGE (Brazil), vol. 67(3), September.
    16. Mas-Colell, Andreu & Zame, William R., 1996. "The existence of security market equilibrium with a non-atomic state space," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 63-84.
    17. Charalambos Aliprantis & Rabee Tourky, 2009. "Equilibria in incomplete assets economies with infinite dimensional spot markets," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 38(2), pages 221-262, February.
    18. Miguel A. Iraola & Juan Pablo Torres-Martínez, 2012. "Liquidity Contractions and Prepayment Risk on Collateralized Asset Markets," Working Papers wp364, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
    19. Magill, Michael & Quinzii, Martine, 2015. "Prices and investment with collateral and default," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 111-132.
    20. Feixue Gong & Gregory Phelan, 2020. "Debt collateralization, capital structure, and maximal leverage," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 70(2), pages 579-605, September.
    21. Eduardo Dávila, 2020. "Using Elasticities to Derive Optimal Bankruptcy Exemptions," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(2), pages 870-913.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eie:wpaper:1319. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/einauit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Facundo Piguillem (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/einauit.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.