IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ecr/col035/5160.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Insurance underwriter or financial development fund: what role for reserve pooling in Latin America?

Author

Listed:
  • Eichengreen, Barry

Abstract

Abstract The unprecedented accumulation of international reserves by emerging markets raises the question of how to best utilize these funds; in particular if they should be held as a war chest to guard against the risk of financial crisis or if they should be used to recapitalize and strengthen weak banking systems. A third issue is if the resource cost could be limited by pooling the holdings of different central banks and if so, to what objectives should this reserve pool be put. This paper considers these questions with reference to the countries participating in the Latin American Reserve Fund (FLAR). It explores two routes through which the pooling of reserves through FLAR could enhance stability and welfare in Latin America. First, the reserve pool could be used for emergency lending in response to sudden stops. Insofar as the incidence of sudden stops differs across countries, pooling would allow the same reserves to support a larger volume of emergency lending. However, the paper discusses how such a scheme would face significant obstacles due both to the bunching of sudden stops temporally and regionally and to moral hazard problems which are stronger in the case of self-regulating entities like FLAR. The second, more promising alternative that the paper analyses, is the use of a portion of the reserve pool, along with borrowed funds, to purchase contingent debt securities issued by Latin American governments and corporations: domestic-currency inflationindexed bonds, GDP-indexed bonds, commodity-price-indexed bonds. This would help to solve the coordination/first-mover problem that limits the liquidity of markets in these instruments and hinders their acceptance by private investors. In any case, the idea is that neither initiative should be thought of in stand-alone terms. In addition to creating an expanded reserve pool for use in emergency lending, governments could also push ahead with issuing contingent debt securities that reduce their vulnerability to disturbances.

Suggested Citation

  • Eichengreen, Barry, 2006. "Insurance underwriter or financial development fund: what role for reserve pooling in Latin America?," Financiamiento para el Desarrollo 186, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
  • Handle: RePEc:ecr:col035:5160
    Note: Includes bibliography
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://repositorio.cepal.org/handle/11362/5160
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sebastian Edwards, 2007. "Capital Controls, Sudden Stops, and Current Account Reversals," NBER Chapters,in: Capital Controls and Capital Flows in Emerging Economies: Policies, Practices and Consequences, pages 73-120 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Guillermo A. Calvo, 2008. "Crises in Emerging Markets Economies: A Global Perspective," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Kevin Cowan & Sebastián Edwards & Rodrigo O. Valdés & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt- (ed.), Current Account and External Financing, edition 1, volume 12, chapter 3, pages 085-115 Central Bank of Chile.
    3. Tito Cordella & Eduardo Levy Yeyati, 2006. "A (New) Country Insurance Facility," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 1-36, May.
    4. Joshua Aizenman & Jaewoo Lee, 2007. "International Reserves: Precautionary Versus Mercantilist Views, Theory and Evidence," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 191-214, April.
    5. Shim, Ilhyock & Sharma, Sunil & Chami, Ralph, 2008. "A Model of the IMF as a Coinsurance Arrangement," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 2, pages 1-41.
    6. Glick, Reuven & Rose, Andrew K., 1999. "Contagion and trade: Why are currency crises regional?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 603-617, August.
    7. Guillermo A. Calvo, 2002. "Globalization Hazard and Delayed Reform in Emerging Markets," ECONOMIA JOURNAL, THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION - LACEA, vol. 0(Spring 20), pages 1-31, January.
    8. Steven T Phillips & Timothy D. Lane, 2000. "Does IMF Financing Result in Moral Hazard?," IMF Working Papers 00/168, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Stefano Athanasoulis & Robert J. Shiller & Eric Van Wincoop, 1999. "Macro markets and financial security," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Apr, pages 21-39.
    10. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo, 1999. "Inversión de las corrientes de capital, tipo de cambio y dolarización
      [Capital Flow Reversals, the Exchange Rate Debate, and Dollarization]
      ," MPRA Paper 13692, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Molina, Danielken & Roa, Monica, 2014. "The Effect of Credit on the Export Performance of Colombian Exporters," MPRA Paper 56137, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Luis Felipe Céspedes & Roberto Chang & Andrés Velasco, 2004. "Balance Sheets and Exchange Rate Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 1183-1193, September.
    13. Domac, Ilker & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2003. "Banking crises and exchange rate regimes: is there a link?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 41-72, October.
    14. Alicia Garcia Herrero & Juan Carlos Berganza, 2004. "What Makes Balance Sheet Effects Detrimental For The Country Risk Premium?," International Finance 0408002, EconWPA.
    15. Caballero, Ricardo, 2003. "On the international financial architecture: Insuring emerging markets," Journal of Financial Transformation, Capco Institute, vol. 7, pages 8-12.
    16. Eduardo Borensztein & Paolo Mauro, 2004. "The case for GDP-indexed bonds," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 19(38), pages 165-216, April.
    17. Gagnon, Joseph E., 2009. "Currency crashes and bond yields in industrial countries," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 161-181, February.
    18. Guillermo A. Calvo & Alejandro Izquierdo & Luis-Fernando Mejía, 2004. "On the empirics of Sudden Stops: the relevance of balance-sheet effects," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Jun.
    19. Tito Cordella & Eduardo Levy Yeyati, 2005. "Country Insurance," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 52(si), pages 1-6.
    20. Eduardo Levy Yeyati, 2006. "Financial dollarization: evaluating the consequences," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 21(45), pages 61-118, January.
    21. Ricardo Caballero & Stavros Panageas, 2005. "A Quantitative Model of Sudden Stops and External Liquidity Management," NBER Working Papers 11293, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    22. John Williamson, 2005. "Curbing the Boom-Bust Cycle: Stabilizing Capital Flows to Emerging Markets," Peterson Institute Press: Policy Analyses in International Economics, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number pa75, October.
    23. Hernando, Ignacio & Álvarez, Luis J., 2004. "Price setting behaviour in Spain: stylised facts using consumer price micro data," Working Paper Series 416, European Central Bank.
    24. Muge Adalet & Barry Eichengreen, 2007. "Current Account Reversals: Always a Problem?," NBER Chapters,in: G7 Current Account Imbalances: Sustainability and Adjustment, pages 205-246 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    25. Heller, H Robert, 1970. "Wealth and International Reserves," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(2), pages 212-214, May.
    26. Jaewoo Lee, 2004. "Insurance Value of International Reserves; An Option Pricing Approach," IMF Working Papers 04/175, International Monetary Fund.
    27. Hazel Selvon & Tracy Polius & Oral Williams, 2001. "Reserve Pooling in the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union and the CFA Franc Zone; A Comparative Analysis," IMF Working Papers 01/104, International Monetary Fund.
    28. Eduardo Levy Yeyati, 2004. "Dollars, Debt and the IFIs: Dedollarizing Multilateral Lending," Business School Working Papers dedollmultlending, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella.
    29. Eichengreen, Barry, 2002. "Financial Crises and What to Do About Them," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199257447.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Fritz, Barbara & Mühlich, Laurissa, 2007. "South-south monetary integration: the case for a research framework beyond the theory of optimum currency area," Discussion Papers 2007/20, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    2. Demyanyk, Yuliya & Volosovych, Vadym, 2008. "Gains from financial integration in the European Union: Evidence for new and old members," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 277-294, March.
    3. Callen, Michael & Imbs, Jean & Mauro, Paolo, 2015. "Pooling risk among countries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 88-99.
    4. Asimiyu Gbolagade Abiola & Francis Ojo Adebayo, 2013. "Channelling The Nigeria’s Foreign Exchange Reserves into Alternative Investment Outlets: A Critical Analysis," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 3(4), pages 813-826.
    5. Mario Lamberte & Peter J. Morgan, 2012. "Regional and Global Monetary Cooperation," Finance Working Papers 23190, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    6. Joshua Aizenman & Jaewoo Lee, 2008. "Financial versus Monetary Mercantilism: Long-run View of Large International Reserves Hoarding," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5), pages 593-611, May.
    7. repec:rss:jnljef:v5i2p4 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. C. Randall Henning, 2011. "Coordinating Regional and Multilateral Financial Institutions," Working Paper Series WP11-9, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    9. repec:rfe:zbefri:v:35:y:2017:i:2:p:391-424 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Olivier Jeanne, 2007. "International Reserves in Emerging Market Countries: Too Much of a Good Thing?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 38(1), pages 1-80.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    ESTABILIZACION ECONOMICA; INSTITUCIONES FINANCIERAS INTERNACIONALES; MERCADOS EMERGENTES; POLITICA FINANCIERA; RESERVAS MONETARIAS; SEGUROS; SISTEMAS MONETARIOS; RECURSOS FINANCIEROS; ECONOMIC STABILIZATION; EMERGING MARKETS; FINANCIAL POLICY; INSURANCE; INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS; MONETARY RESERVES; MONETARY SYSTEMS; FINANCIAL RESOURCES;

    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General
    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • F39 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Other

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecr:col035:5160. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Biblioteca CEPAL). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/eclaccl.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.