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On the International Financial Architecture: Insuring Emerging Markets

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  • Ricardo J. Caballero

Abstract

In spite of significant institutional and macroeconomic reforms over the last decade or two, capital flows to developing economies remain highly volatile. In 1996, net private capital flows to emerging markets reached US$230 billions; by 1997 these flows had been cut in half; by 1998 halved again; and after a mild recovery during 1999, flows fell in 2000 and 2001 to slightly over one-tenth the level of 1996. These reversals in capital flows have enormous economic and social costs for developing economies. For well behaved' countries, a significant share of these fluctuations is triggered by events that are outside their direct control, and often outside the control of emerging markets as a whole. Building on this observation, this paper highlights some of the desirable features of insurance and hedging instruments against capital flow volatility, and discusses steps to facilitate the creation of these markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Ricardo J. Caballero, 2003. "On the International Financial Architecture: Insuring Emerging Markets," NBER Working Papers 9570, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:9570
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Krishnamurthy, Arvind, 2003. "Collateral constraints and the amplification mechanism," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 111(2), pages 277-292, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Joshua Aizenman, 2008. "International Reserve Management and the Current Account," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Kevin Cowan & Sebastián Edwards & Rodrigo O. Valdés & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt- (ed.), Current Account and External Financing, edition 1, volume 12, chapter 11, pages 435-474 Central Bank of Chile.
    2. Ghosal, Sayantan & Miller, Marcus & Thampanishvong, Kannika, 2010. "Delay and Haircuts in Sovereign Debt: Recovery and Sustainability," SIRE Discussion Papers 2010-17, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
    3. International Monetary Fund, 2005. "Capital Account Liberalization and the Real Exchange Rate in Chile," IMF Working Papers 05/132, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Hutchison, Michael M. & Noy, Ilan, 2006. "Sudden stops and the Mexican wave: Currency crises, capital flow reversals and output loss in emerging markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 225-248, February.
    5. Alfaro, Laura & Kanczuk, Fabio, 2009. "Optimal reserve management and sovereign debt," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 23-36, February.
    6. García Arias, Jorge, 2008. "International finance and development: opportunity or threat?," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), December.
    7. Barry Eichengreen, 2007. "Insurance Underwriter or Financial Development Fund: What Role for Reserve Pooling in Latin America?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 27-52, February.
    8. Aizenman, Joshua & Pinto, Brian, 2011. "Managing Financial Integration and Capital Mobility— Policy lessons from the past two decades," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt9j53m1tp, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    9. Mendoza, Ronald U., 2004. "International reserve-holding in the developing world: self insurance in a crisis-prone era?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 61-82, March.
    10. Fujiki, Hiroshi & Watanabe, Kiyoshi, 2003. "Effects of External Debt on Domestic Resource Allocation in a Small Open Economy with Limited Access to the World Capital Market," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 21(4), pages 21-56, December.
    11. Joshua Aizenman & Daniel Riera-Crichton, 2006. "Real Exchange Rate and International Reserves in the Era of Growing Financial and Trade Integration," NBER Working Papers 12363, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Andrew G Haldane, 1997. "Designing Inflation Targets," RBA Annual Conference Volume,in: Philip Lowe (ed.), Monetary Policy and Inflation Targeting Reserve Bank of Australia.
    13. Canuto, Otaviano & Pinto, Brian & Prasad, Mona, 2012. "Orderly sovereign debt restructuring : missing in action !," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6054, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E0 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General
    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

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