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Real Exchange Rate and International Reserves in an Era of Growing Financial and Trade Integration


  • Joshua Aizenman

    (UCSC and NBER)

  • Daniel Riera-Crichton



This paper evaluates the impact of international reserves, terms-of-trade shocks, and capital flows on the real exchange rate (REER). We observe that international reserves cushion the impact of terms-of-trade shocks on REER, and that this effect is important for developing but not for industrial countries. This buffer effect is especially significant for Asian countries, and for countries exporting natural resources. Financial depth reduces the buffer role of international reserves in developing countries. Developing countries' REERs seem to be more sensitive to changes in reserve assets; whereas industrial countries display a significant relationship between hot money and REER. Copyright by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Suggested Citation

  • Joshua Aizenman & Daniel Riera-Crichton, 2008. "Real Exchange Rate and International Reserves in an Era of Growing Financial and Trade Integration," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(4), pages 812-815, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:restat:v:90:y:2008:i:4:p:812-815

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dani Rodrik, 2006. "The social cost of foreign exchange reserves," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 253-266.
    2. Philippe Aghion & Abhijit Banerjee & Thomas Piketty, 1999. "Dualism and Macroeconomic Volatility," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(4), pages 1359-1397.
    3. Joshua Aizenman & Jaewoo Lee, 2007. "International Reserves: Precautionary Versus Mercantilist Views, Theory and Evidence," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 191-214, April.
    4. Pablo García & Claudio Soto, 2006. "Large Hoardings of International Reserves: Are They Worth It?," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Ricardo Caballero & César Calderón & Luis Felipe Céspedes & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Sc (ed.), External Vulnerability and Preventive Policies, edition 1, volume 10, chapter 6, pages 171-206 Central Bank of Chile.
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    Cited by:

    1. Aizenman, Joshua & Pinto, Brian, 2011. "Managing Financial Integration and Capital Mobility— Policy lessons from the past two decades," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt9j53m1tp, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    2. Steiner, Andreas, 2013. "The accumulation of foreign exchange by central banks: Fear of capital mobility?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 38(PB), pages 409-427.
    3. Joshua Aizenman & Daniel Riera-Crichton, 2015. "Liquidity and Foreign Asset Management Challenges for Latin American Countries," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Rodrigo Caputo & Roberto Chang (ed.), Commodity Prices and Macroeconomic Policy, edition 1, volume 22, chapter 4, pages 091-134 Central Bank of Chile.
    4. Aizenman, Joshua & Edwards, Sebastian & Riera-Crichton, Daniel, 2012. "Adjustment patterns to commodity terms of trade shocks: The role of exchange rate and international reserves policies," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(8), pages 1990-2016.
    5. Ibarra, Carlos A., 2011. "Capital Flows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2080-2090.
    6. Chia, W.M. & Jinjarak, Y. & Rana, P. & Xie, T., 2014. "Net foreign assets and macroeconomic volatility," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 42-53.
    7. Tsen, Wong Hock, 2011. "The real exchange rate determination: An empirical investigation," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 800-811, October.
    8. Andreas Steiner, 2010. "Central Banks’ Dilemma: Reserve Accumulation, Inflation and Financial Instability," Working Papers 84, Institute of Empirical Economic Research, Osnabrueck University.
    9. Abdelkader Aguir & Mounir Smida, 2015. "Efficiency of monetary policy under inflation targeting," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(1), pages 788-813.
    10. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Sengupta, Rajeswari, 2011. "Accumulation of reserves and keeping up with the Joneses: The case of LATAM economies," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 19-31, January.
    11. Aizenman, Joshua & Hutchison, Michael & Noy, Ilan, 2011. "Inflation Targeting and Real Exchange Rates in Emerging Markets," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 712-724, May.
    12. Suparna Chakraborty & Yi Tang & Liuren Wu, 2015. "Imports, Exports, Dollar Exposures, and Stock Returns," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 26(5), pages 1059-1079, November.
    13. Joshua Aizenman & Brian Pinto, 2013. "Managing Financial Integration and Capital Mobility—Policy Lessons from the Past Two Decades," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 636-653, September.
    14. Al-Abri, Almukhtar, 2013. "Real exchange rate volatility, terms-of-trade shocks, and financial integration in primary-commodity exporting economies," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 120(1), pages 126-129.
    15. Xingwang Qian & Andreas Steiner, 2014. "International Reserves and the Composition of Foreign Equity Investment," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 379-409, May.
    16. Joshua Aizenman & Daniel Riera-Crichton, 2015. "Desafíos del Manejo de la Liquidez y de los Activos Internacionales en Latinoamérica," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 18(2), pages 62-96, August.
    17. Aizenman , Joshua, 2008. "Relative Price Levels and Current Accounts: An Exploration," East Asian Economic Review, Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, vol. 12(2), pages 3-32, December.

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