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Managing Financial Integration and Capital Mobility—Policy Lessons from the Past Two Decades

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  • Joshua Aizenman
  • Brian Pinto

Abstract

The accumulated experience of emerging markets over the past two decades has laid bare the tenuous links between external financial integration and faster growth, on the one hand, and the proclivity of such integration to fuel costly crises on the other. These crises have not gone without learning. During the 1990s and 2000s, emerging markets converged to the middle ground of the policy space defined by the macroeconomic trilemma, with growing financial integration, controlled exchange rate flexibility, and proactive monetary policy. The OECD countries moved much faster toward financial integration, embracing financial liberalization, opting for a common currency in Europe, and for flexible exchange rates in other OECD countries. Following their crises of 1997-2001, emerging markets added financial stability as a goal, self-insured by building up international reserves, and adopted a public finance approach to financial integration. The global crisis of 2008-2009, which originated in the financial sector of advanced economies, meant that the OECD"overshot"the optimal degree of financial deregulation while the remarkable resilience of the emerging markets validated their public finance approach to financial integration. The story is not over: with capital flowing in droves to emerging markets once again, history could repeat itself without dynamic measures to manage capital mobility as part of a comprehensive prudential regulation effort.
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  • Joshua Aizenman & Brian Pinto, 2013. "Managing Financial Integration and Capital Mobility—Policy Lessons from the Past Two Decades," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 636-653, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:reviec:v:21:y:2013:i:4:p:636-653
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    2. Aizenman, Joshua & Pinto, Brian & Sushko, Vladyslav, 2013. "Financial sector ups and downs and the real sector in the open economy: Up by the stairs, down by the parachute," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(C), pages 1-30.
    3. Erdem, F. Pinar & Geyikci, Utku Bora, 2021. "Local, global and regional shocks indices in emerging exchange rate markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 98-113.
    4. Liew, Ping-Xin & Lim, Kian-Ping & Goh, Kim-Leng, 2018. "Foreign equity flows: Boon or bane to the liquidity of Malaysian stock market?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 161-181.
    5. Fatma Pinar Erdem & Utku Bora Geyikci, 2018. "Local, Regional and Global FX Shock Indices in Emerging Markets," CBT Research Notes in Economics 1812, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    6. Joshua Aizenman, 2018. "Optimal Currency Area: A twentieth Century Idea for the twenty-first Century?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 29(2), pages 373-382, April.
    7. Joshua Aizenman & Brian Pinto, 2013. "Managing Financial Integration and Capital Mobility—Policy Lessons from the Past Two Decades," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 636-653, September.
    8. Brittany Baumann & Kevin Gallagher, 2013. "Post-Crisis Capital Account Regulation in South Korea and South Africa," Working Papers wp320, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    9. Aizenman, Joshua, 2019. "A modern reincarnation of Mundell-Fleming's trilemma," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 444-454.
    10. Múnera, Daimer J. & Agudelo, Diego A., 2022. "Who moved my liquidity? Liquidity evaporation in emerging markets in periods of financial uncertainty," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 129(C).
    11. Kevin Gallagher, 2012. "The Myth of Financial Protectionism: The New (and old) Economics of Capital Controls," Working Papers wp278, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    12. Aizenman, Joshua & Pinto, Brian, 2011. "Managing Financial Integration and Capital Mobility— Policy lessons from the past two decades," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt9j53m1tp, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    13. Woosik Moon & Yeongseop Rhee, 2012. "Asian Monetary Integration," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14191.
    14. Joshua Aizenman & Brian Pinto & Vladyslav Sushko, 2011. "Financial Sector Ups and Downs and the Real Sector: Up by the stairs, down by the parachute," NBER Working Papers 17530, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Peeters, Marga & Sabri, Nidal Rachid, 2012. "International financial integration of Mediterranean economies : A bird’s-eye view," MPRA Paper 38081, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Aizenman, Joshua & Pinto, Brian & Sushko, Vladyslav, 2011. "Financial sector ups and downs and the real sector : big hindrance, little help," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5860, The World Bank.
    17. Canuto, Otaviano & Pinto, Brian & Prasad, Mona, 2012. "Orderly sovereign debt restructuring : missing in action !," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6054, The World Bank.

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