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A Quantitative Model of Sudden Stops and External Liquidity Management

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  • Ricardo Caballero
  • Stavros Panageas

Abstract

Emerging market economies, which have much of their growth ahead of them, run persistent current account deficits in order to smooth consumption intertemporally. The counterpart of these deficits is their dependence on capital inflows, which can suddenly stop. In this paper we develop and estimate a quantifiable model of sudden stops and use it to study practical mechanisms to insure emerging markets against them. We first assess the standard practice of protecting the current account through the accumulation of international reserves and conclude that, even when optimally managed, this mechanism is expensive and incomplete. External insurance, on the other hand, is hard to obtain because sudden stops often come together with distress in emerging market investors themselves (the most natural insurers). Thus, one needs to find global (non-emerging-market-specific) assets that are correlated to sudden stops. We show an example of such an asset based on the S&P 500's implied volatility index. If added to these countries portfolios, it would significantly enhance their sudden stop risk-management strategies. In our simulations, the median gain in terms of reserves available at the time of sudden stop is around 30 percent. Moreover, in instances where the level of non-contingent reserves is low, the median gain is close to 300 percent. We also find that as countries manage to reduce the size of the sudden stops that afflict them, they should reduce their stock of reserves and significantly increase their share of contingent reserves. The main insights of the paper extend to external liquidity and liability management more generally.

Suggested Citation

  • Ricardo Caballero & Stavros Panageas, 2005. "A Quantitative Model of Sudden Stops and External Liquidity Management," NBER Working Papers 11293, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:11293 Note: EFG IFM
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    Cited by:

    1. Ronald U. Mendoza, 2007. "A Compendium of Policy Instruments to Enhance Financial Stability and Debt Management in Emerging Market Economies," Working Papers 48, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    2. Alexander D. Rothenberg & Francis E. Warnock, 2011. "Sudden Flight and True Sudden Stops," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 509-524, August.
    3. Suman Basu & Ran Bi & Prakash Kannan, 2010. "Regional reserve pooling arrangements," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    4. Marcello Spanò, 2013. "Foreign Reserves as Hedging Instruments in Emerging Countries," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 60(2), pages 203-230, April.
    5. Panageas, Stavros, 2010. "Bailouts, the incentive to manage risk, and financial crises," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(3), pages 296-311, March.
    6. Olivier Jeanne, 2007. "International Reserves in Emerging Market Countries: Too Much of a Good Thing?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 38(1), pages 1-80.
    7. Enrique G. Mendoza, 2006. "Lessons from the Debt-Deflation Theory of Sudden Stops," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 411-416, May.
    8. Barry Eichengreen, 2007. "Insurance Underwriter or Financial Development Fund: What Role for Reserve Pooling in Latin America?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 27-52, February.
    9. Eduardo Fernández-Arias & Eduardo Levy-Yeyati, 2012. "Global Financial Safety Nets: Where Do We Go from Here?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 37-68, April.
    10. Marcello Spanò, 2012. "The Effect Of Openness On Foreign Reserves And Growth In The Emerging Economies," Annals - Economy Series, Constantin Brancusi University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 1, pages 7-23, March.
    11. Leontyeva, Elena & Narkevich, Sergey, 2015. "Optimal Practice of Creation and Management of Gold Reserves," Published Papers mak12, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.
    12. Bush, Oliver & Farrant, Katie & Wright, Michelle, 2011. "Financial Stability Paper No 13: Reform of the International Monetary and Financial System," Bank of England Financial Stability Papers 13, Bank of England.
    13. Kimakova, Alena, 2008. "The political economy of exchange rate regime determination: Theory and evidence," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 354-371, December.
    14. Kevin Cowan L. & José De Gregorio R. & Alejandro Micco A. & Christopher Neilson M., 2007. "Financial Diversification and Sudden Stops," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 10(3), pages 45-65, December.
    15. Ricardo J. Caballero & Pierre Yared, 2008. "Inflating the Beast: Political Incentives Under Uncertainty," NBER Working Papers 13779, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Hur, Sewon & Kondo, Illenin O., 2016. "A theory of rollover risk, sudden stops, and foreign reserves," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 44-63.
    17. Caballero, Ricardo J. & Panageas, Stavros, 2008. "Hedging sudden stops and precautionary contractions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 28-57, February.
    18. Stavros Panageas, 2009. "Bailouts, the Incentive to Manage Risk, and Financial Crises," NBER Working Papers 15058, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Ricardo J. Caballero, 2006. "On the Macroeconomics of Asset Shortages," NBER Working Papers 12753, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Flavia Corneli & Emanuele Tarantino, 2011. "Reserve management and sovereign debt cost in a world with liquidity crises," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 797, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E2 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment
    • E3 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

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