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The Academic Market And The Rise Of Universities In Medieval And Early Modern Europe (1000-1800)

Author

Listed:
  • David De La Croix

    (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))

  • Frédéric Docquier

    (LISER, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg)

  • Alice Fabre

    (AMSE, Université Aix-Marseille, France)

  • Robert Stelter

    (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)

Abstract

Medieval universities are one of the most original creations of Western civilization. Students were educated by a plurality of masters, and scholars came from all parts of Europe. In this paper, we build an original database of thousands of scholars from university sources, and map the academic market in the medieval and early modern periods. Using a random utility model, we show that scholars tend to agglomerate in the best universities, and that this phenomenon is more pronounced within the upper tail of the talent distribution (positive sorting). The quality of scholars is measured by their publications. Agglomeration and sorting patterns testify to a functioning academic market, made possible by political fragmentation and the use of a common language (Latin). Using counterfactual simulations, we show that market forces shaped the geographic distribution of upper-tail human capital across Europe, and contributed to bolstering European universities at the dawn of the Humanistic and Scientific Revolutions.

Suggested Citation

  • David De La Croix & Frédéric Docquier & Alice Fabre & Robert Stelter, 2019. "The Academic Market And The Rise Of Universities In Medieval And Early Modern Europe (1000-1800)," LIDAM Discussion Papers IRES 2019019, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  • Handle: RePEc:ctl:louvir:2019019
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    Cited by:

    1. Thomas Baudin & Robert Stelter, 2022. "The rural exodus and the rise of Europe," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 365-414, September.
    2. Chaney, Eric, 2020. "Modern Library Holdings and Historic City Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 14686, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Andreas Link, 2023. "The Fall of Constantinople and the Rise of the West," Working Papers 223, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE).
    4. Remi Jedwab & Noel D. Johnson & Mark Koyama, 2022. "The Economic Impact of the Black Death," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 132-178, March.
    5. Lehmann-Hasemeyer, Sibylle & Prettner, Klaus & Tscheuschner, Paul, 2023. "The scientific revolution and its implications for long-run economic development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 168(C).
    6. de la Croix, David & Goñi, Marc, 2020. "Nepotism vs. Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital in Academia (1088--1800)," CEPR Discussion Papers 15159, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Karol Jan Borowiecki & Nicholas Martin Ford & Maria Marchenko, 2023. "Harmonious relations: quality transmission among composers in the very long run," European Review of Economic History, European Historical Economics Society, vol. 27(3), pages 454-476.
    8. Lecce, Giampaolo & Ogliari, Laura & Squicciarini, Mara P., 2021. "Birth and migration of scientists: Does religiosity matter? Evidence from 19th-century France," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 187(C), pages 274-289.
    9. David de la Croix & Mara Vitale, 2023. "Women in European academia before 1800—religion, marriage, and human capital," European Review of Economic History, European Historical Economics Society, vol. 27(4), pages 506-532.
    10. Beine, Michel & Bierlaire, Michel & Docquier, Frédéric, 2021. "New York, Abu Dhabi, London or Stay at Home? Using a Cross-Nested Logit Model to Identify Complex Substitution Patterns in Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 14090, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    11. Palma, Nuno & Charotti, Carlos Javier & dos Santos, Joao Pereira, 2022. "American treasure and the decline of Spain," CEPR Discussion Papers 17020, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Fabio Blasutto & David de la Croix, 2023. "Catholic Censorship and the Demise of Knowledge Production in Early Modern Italy," The Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 133(656), pages 2899-2924.
    13. Michel Serafinelli & Guido Tabellini, 2022. "Creativity over time and space," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 1-43, March.
    14. Link, Andreas, 2023. "The Fall of Constantinople and the Rise of the West," VfS Annual Conference 2023 (Regensburg): Growth and the "sociale Frage" 277619, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    15. Chiara Zanardello, 2023. "Market forces in Italian academia today (and yesterday)," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 128(1), pages 651-698, January.
    16. David de la Croix & Pauline Morault, 2020. "Winners and Losers from the Protestant Reformation: An Analysis of the Network of European Universities," LIDAM Discussion Papers IRES 2020029, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    17. Donia Kamel & Laura Pollacci, 2023. "Academic Migration and Academic Networks: Evidence from Scholarly Big Data and the Iron Curtain," CESifo Working Paper Series 10377, CESifo.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Upper-Tail Human Capital; Universities; Discrete choice model; Scholars; Publications; Agglomeration.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • N33 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Europe: Pre-1913
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development

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