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Multinational Expansion in Time and Space

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  • Garetto, Stefania
  • Oldenski, Lindsay
  • Ramondo, Natalia

Abstract

This paper studies the expansion patterns of the multinational enterprise (MNE) in time and space. Using a long panel of US MNEs, we document that: MNE affiliates grow by exporting to new markets; the activities of MNE affiliates persist during the affiliate’s life, usually starting with sales to their host market and eventually expanding to export markets; and MNE affiliates’ entry into new locations does not depend on the location of preexisting affiliates. Informed by these facts, we develop a multi-country quantitative dynamic model of the MNE that features heterogeneity in firm-level productivity, persistent aggregate shocks, and a rich structure of costs that affect MNE expansion. Importantly, MNE affiliates can decouple their locations of production and sales, and endogenously choose to enter or exit the host and the export markets. We introduce a compound option formulation that allows us to capture in a tractable way the rich heterogeneity that is observed in the data and that is necessary for quantitative analysis. Using the calibrated model, our quantitative application to Brexit reveals that export platforms are important for understanding the reallocation of MNE activity in time and space, and that the nature of the frictions to MNE activities matters for aggregate firm dynamics.

Suggested Citation

  • Garetto, Stefania & Oldenski, Lindsay & Ramondo, Natalia, 2019. "Multinational Expansion in Time and Space," CEPR Discussion Papers 13704, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:13704
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    3. Luo, Changyuan & Si, Chunxiao & Zhang, Hongyong, 2022. "Moving out of China? Evidence from Japanese multinational firms," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 110(C).
    4. Tarek Alexander Hassan & Stephan Hollander & Laurence van Lent & Ahmed Tahoun, 2020. "The Global Impact of Brexit Uncertainty," Boston University - Department of Economics - The Institute for Economic Development Working Papers Series dp-332, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    5. Hassan, Tarek & Hollander, Stephan & van Lent, Laurence & Tahoun, Ahmed, 2019. "The Global Impact of Brexit Uncertainty," CEPR Discussion Papers 14253, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Jean‐Charles Bricongne & Sebastian Franco Bedoya & Margarita Lopez Forero, 2023. "The proximity‐concentration trade‐off with multi‐product firms: Are exports and FDI complements or substitutes?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(5), pages 1264-1289, May.
    7. Chen, Cheng & Sun, Chang & Zhang, Hongyong, 2022. "Learning and information transmission within multinational corporations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 143(C).
    8. Sebastian Dyrda & Guangbin Hong & Joseph B Steinberg, 2022. "A Macroeconomic Perspective on Taxing Multinational Enterprises," Working Papers tecipa-731, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    9. Pol Antràs & Evgenii Fadeev & Teresa C. Fort & Felix Tintelnot, 2022. "Global Sourcing and Multinational Activity: A Unified Approach," Working Papers 22-36, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    10. Dan Cao & Erick Sager & Henry Hyatt & Toshihiko Mukoyama, 2019. "Firm Growth through New Establishments," 2019 Meeting Papers 1484, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    11. Ziran Ding, 2022. "Firm heterogeneity, variable markups, and multinational production: A review from trade policy perspective," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(5), pages 1311-1357, December.
    12. Monika Sztajerowska, 2021. "International Investment Agreements, Double-Taxation Treaties and Multinational Activity: The (Heterogeneous) Effects of Binding," PSE Working Papers halshs-03265057, HAL.
    13. Monika Sztajerowska, 2021. "International Investment Agreements, Double-Taxation Treaties and Multinational Activity: The (Heterogeneous) Effects of Binding," Working Papers halshs-03265057, HAL.
    14. Teresa C. Fort, 2023. "The Changing Firm and Country Boundaries of US Manufacturers in Global Value Chains," Working Papers 23-38, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    15. Hornstein, Abigail S. & Naknoi, Kanda, 2023. "FDI commitments increase when uncertainty is resolved: Evidence from Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(C).
    16. Carballo, Jerónimo & Marra de Artiñano, Ignacio & Sztajerowska, Monika & Volpe Martincus, Christian, 2023. "How Do Investment Promotion Policies Affect Sustainability?," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 13306, Inter-American Development Bank.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Multinational firms; Foreign direct investment; Firm dynamics; Sunk costs;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade

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