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Diffusion of Gender Norms: Evidence from Stalin's Ethnic Deportations

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  • Miho, Antonela
  • Jarotschkin, Alexandra
  • Zhuravskaya, Ekaterina

Abstract

We study horizontal between-group cultural transmission using a unique historical setting, which combines exogenous group exposure with no control over whether and how the representativesof different groups interact. Stalin's ethnic deportations during WWII moved over 2 million people — the majority of whom were ethnic Germans and Chechens — from the Western parts of the USSR to Central Asia and Siberia. As a result, the native population of the deportation destinations was exogenously exposed to groups with drastically different gender norms. Combining historical archival data with contemporary surveys, we document that gender norms diffused from deportees tothe local population, resulting in changes in attitudes and behavior. Norms of gender equality diffused more than norms of gender discrimination.

Suggested Citation

  • Miho, Antonela & Jarotschkin, Alexandra & Zhuravskaya, Ekaterina, 2021. "Diffusion of Gender Norms: Evidence from Stalin's Ethnic Deportations," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Docweb) 2103, CEPREMAP.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpm:docweb:2103
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    Cited by:

    1. Viktor Malein, 2021. "Human Capital and Industrialization: German Settlers in Late Imperial Russia," Working Papers 0221, European Historical Economics Society (EHES).
    2. Ekaterina Zhuravskaya & Sergei Guriev & Andrei Markevich, 2024. "New Russian Economic History," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 62(1), pages 47-114, March.
    3. Sascha O. Becker & Jared Rubin & Ludger Woessmann, 2023. "Religion and Growth," Monash Economics Working Papers 2023-15, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    4. Barbara Boelmann & Anna Raute & Uta Schönberg, 2020. "Wind of Change? Cultural Determinants of Maternal Labor Supply," Working Papers 914, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
    5. Rapoport & Hillel & Sulin Sardoschau & Arthur Silve & Hillel Rapoport, 2020. "Migration and Cultural Change," CESifo Working Paper Series 8547, CESifo.
    6. Dincecco, Mark & Fenske, James & Gupta, Bishnupriya & Menon, Anil, 2024. "Conflict and Gender Norms," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 704, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    7. Toews, Gerhard & Vezina, Pierre-Louis, 2020. "Enemies of the people," SocArXiv gnypr, Center for Open Science.
    8. Barbara Boelmann & Anna Raute & Uta Schönberg, 2021. "Wind of Change? Cultural Determinants of Maternal Labor Supply," ECONtribute Discussion Papers Series 090, University of Bonn and University of Cologne, Germany.
    9. Yvonne Giesing & Björn Kauder & Lukas Mergele & Niklas Potrafke & Panu Poutvaara, 2024. "Moving Out of the Comfort Zone: How Cultural Norms Affect Attitudes toward Immigration," CESifo Working Paper Series 10985, CESifo.
    10. Berlanda, Andrea & Buonanno, Paolo & Puca, Marcello, 2023. "Religion and women: How Waldensians reduced the gender gap," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 96(C).
    11. Levai, Adam & Turati, Riccardo, 2024. "International Immigration and Labor Regulation," IZA Discussion Papers 16929, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    12. Barbara Boelmann & Anna Raute & Uta Schönberg, 2020. "Wind of Change? Cultural Determinants of Maternal Labor Supply," RF Berlin - CReAM Discussion Paper Series 2020, Rockwool Foundation Berlin (RF Berlin) - Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM).
    13. Benny, Liza & Bhalotra, Sonia & Fernández, Manuel, 2021. "Occupation flexibility and the graduate gender wage gap in the UK," ISER Working Paper Series 2021-05, Institute for Social and Economic Research.

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    Keywords

    Horizontal cultural transmission; Gender norms; Deportations; Stalin;
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