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Eficiencia técnica de los hogares con producción agropecuaria en Colombia

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  • Ligia Alba Melo-Becerra

    ()

  • Antonio José Orozco-Gallo

    ()

Abstract

Este documento evalúa la eficiencia de la producción agropecuaria en Colombia, utilizando una muestra de 1.565 hogares con información del módulo rural de la Encuesta Nacional de Calidad de Vida (ECV) de 2011. El estudio considera que los hogares producen en diferentes sistemas productivos que varían por la geografía, el clima y los tipos de suelo, condiciones que pueden afectar la eficiencia en la producción y que hacen que el análisis bajo la misma frontera de producción no sea apropiado. Por esta razón, se utilizan técnicas de metafrontera estocástica, las cuales permiten comparar la eficiencia técnica de los hogares al interior de cada sistema productivo y entre sistemas en relación con el sector agropecuario como un todo. Los resultados indican que los hogares en algunos sistemas de producción se podrían beneficiar de mejores condiciones de producción, debido a las ventajas de disponibilidad de recursos naturales y de clima, así como de condiciones socio-económicas más favorables. También se encuentra que en todos los sistemas, los hogares con mayor producción tienen medidas de eficiencia técnica más altas. De esta forma, se podrían obtener ganancias importantes en el sector, a través de programas que contribuyan a mejorar la eficiencia de los hogares dentro de los sistemas de producción y de políticas que ayuden a reducir la brecha tecnología de los diferentes sistemas con respecto a la meta-frontera. Lo anterior generaría impactos positivos en la calidad de vida de los pequeños agricultores y en la productividad del sector. *******ABSTRACT: In this paper, the efficiency of crop and livestock production in Colombia is assessed by using a sample of 1,565 households from the 2011 Quality of Life Survey. The study takes into account that households produce within different production systems that differ by geography, climate and soil types, conditions that can affect technical efficiency and make the analysis under the same production frontier inadequate. For this reason, stochastic metafrontier techniques are used, allowing the estimation of technical efficiency within each production system and between systems in relation to the sector as a whole. Results suggest that households in some production systems could be benefiting from better production conditions, because of advantages in the availability of natural resources and climate as well as more favorable socio-economic conditions. Additionally, we found that in all systems, households with higher production have higher measures of technical efficiency. Thus, significant gains could be achieved in the sector, through measures that contribute to improve the efficiency within the production systems and by policies that help to reduce the technology gap in relation to the metafrontier. These policies would have positive impacts on the quality of life of small farmers and on the productivity of sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Ligia Alba Melo-Becerra & Antonio José Orozco-Gallo, 2015. "Eficiencia técnica de los hogares con producción agropecuaria en Colombia," Documentos de Trabajo Sobre Economía Regional y Urbana 013903, Banco de la República - Economía Regional.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000102:013903
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Análisis de frontera estocástica; eficiencia agropecuaria; meta-frontera;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity

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