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Ineficiencia en la Distribución de Energía Eléctrica: Una Aplicación de las Funciones de Distancia Estocástica

  • Ligia Melo B.

    ()

  • Nestor Espinosa

    ()

Este documento evalúa el desempeño de las empresas distribuidoras de energía durante el periodo 1999-2003, utilizando la metodología de funciones de distancia estocástica, la cual a través de la estimación de las desviaciones de una función ideal de producción, permite medir los niveles de eficiencia técnica de las diferentes empresas. Los resultados indican que existen diferencias significativas en el desempeño de las empresas, sugiriendo que se podrían obtener importantes ganancias en términos de eficiencia técnica si las empresas operaran o se acercaran a los niveles de operación de las más eficientes. Estas ganancias se podrían expresar en el ahorro de recursos, la calidad del servicio y/o en menores niveles de tarifas a los usuarios finales. También se encontró que el desempeño de las empresas distribuidoras de energía puede verse afectado por factores fuera del control de las firmas, tales como las condiciones geográficas, el número de usuarios atendidos y la densidad poblacional. En particular, se encuentra que empresas con un entorno más favorable en términos de densidad poblacional y/o de los niveles de consumo de los usuarios se ven favorecidas cuando dichas variables afectan directamente la tecnología de producción. Por otra parte, se observa que las empresas públicas registran un mejor desempeño cuando las variables ambientales afectan directamente la eficiencia y no la función de producción. Estos resultados sugieren que las empresas privadas se podrían estar beneficiando de condiciones de entorno más favorables, teniendo en cuenta que estas, en promedio atienden áreas de más alta densidad poblacional y usuarios de consumos más altos.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 321.

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