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Outside Entrepreneurial Capital

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  • Andy Cosh
  • Douglas Cumming
  • Alan Hughes

Abstract

This paper investigates the internal versus external financing decisions among 1900 early stage privately held UK firms in 1996-1997. We study the factors that affect rejection rates in applications for outside finance among the different types of investors, taking into account the non-randomness in a firm’s decision to seek outside finance. The data support the traditional pecking order theory; firms with greater capital expenditures / profits are more likely to seek finance and apply for more external finance. The data further indicate growth oriented firms are much more likely to apply for external finance. There are some differences in the internal versus external financing of female and male founder CEO firms, but these differences are largely attributable to growth orientation. Firms in industries with a greater proportion of larger competitors are less likely to obtain all of their desired outside capital. The data also indicate banks are less likely to finance completely new startups, while venture capital funds are more likely to finance innovative and growth orientated firms. Overall, the data do not indicate the presence of a capital gap in entrepreneurial finance; rather, firms seeking capital are able to secure their requisite financing from at least one of the many different available sources. Classification-JEL: G21, G22, G23, G24, G31, G32, G35

Suggested Citation

  • Andy Cosh & Douglas Cumming & Alan Hughes, 2005. "Outside Entrepreneurial Capital," Working Papers wp301, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
  • Handle: RePEc:cbr:cbrwps:wp301
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    Cited by:

    1. Minetti, Raoul & Murro, Pierluigi & Paiella, Monica, 2015. "Ownership structure, governance, and innovation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 165-193.
    2. Bao, Xiaolu & Johan, Sofia & Kutsuna, Kenji, 2016. "Do political connections matter in accessing capital markets? Evidence from China," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 24-41.
    3. Kim, Jin-Hyuk & Wagman, Liad, 2016. "Early-stage entrepreneurial financing: A signaling perspective," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 12-22.
    4. Diana Hechavarría & Charles Matthews & Paul Reynolds, 2016. "Does start-up financing influence start-up speed? Evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 137-167, January.
    5. Cumming, Douglas & Li, Dan, 2013. "Public policy, entrepreneurship, and venture capital in the United States," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 345-367.
    6. Alicia M. Robb & David T. Robinson, 2014. "The Capital Structure Decisions of New Firms," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(1), pages 153-179, January.
    7. Tom Vanacker & Veroniek Collewaert & Ine Paeleman, 2013. "The Relationship between Slack Resources and the Performance of Entrepreneurial Firms: The Role of Venture Capital and Angel Investors," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(6), pages 1070-1096, September.
    8. Hanssens, Jürgen & Deloof, Marc & Vanacker, Tom, 2016. "The evolution of debt policies: New evidence from business startups," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 120-133.
    9. Ambrose, Brent W. & Cordell, Lawrence R. & Ma, Shuwei, 2015. "The impact of student loan debt on small business formation," Working Papers 15-26, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    10. Adam Nowak & Amanda Ross & Christopher Yencha, 2015. "Small Business Borrowing and Peer-to-Peer Lending: Evidence from Lending Club," Working Papers 15-28, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
    11. Giacinto Micucci & Paola Rossi, 2017. "Financing R&D investments: an analysis on Italian manufacturing firms and their lending banks," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 44(1), pages 23-49, March.
    12. Cole, Rebel & Cumming, Douglas & Li, Dan, 2016. "Do banks or VCs spur small firm growth?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 60-72.
    13. repec:kap:sbusec:v:50:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11187-016-9826-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Cumming, Douglas & Werth, Jochen Christian & Zhang, Yelin, 2016. "Governance in entrepreneurial ecosystems: Venture capitalists vs. technology parks," SAFE Working Paper Series 135, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe, Goethe University Frankfurt.
    15. Schwienbacher, Armin, 2013. "The entrepreneur's investor choice: The impact on later-stage firm development," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 528-545.
    16. Popov, Alexander & Roosenboom, Peter, 2013. "Venture capital and new business creation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 4695-4710.
    17. Blaseg, Daniel & Koetter, Michael, 2015. "Friend or Foe? Crowdfunding Versus Credit when Banks are Stressed," IWH Discussion Papers 8/2015, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    18. Wesley Mendes-Da-Silva & Luciano Rossoni & Bruno Conte & Cristiane Gattaz & Eduardo Francisco, 2016. "The impacts of fundraising periods and geographic distance on financing music production via crowdfunding in Brazil," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer;The Association for Cultural Economics International, vol. 40(1), pages 75-99, February.
    19. Marc Cowling & Weixi Liu & Maria Minniti & Ning Zhang, 2016. "UK credit and discouragement during the GFC," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 1049-1074, December.
    20. Zhao, Lima & Huchzermeier, Arnd, 2015. "Operations–finance interface models: A literature review and framework," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 244(3), pages 905-917.
    21. Diana M. Hechavarría & Charles H. Matthews & Paul D. Reynolds, 2016. "Does start-up financing influence start-up speed? Evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 137-167, January.
    22. Bjuggren, Per-Olof & Elmoznino Laufer, Michel, 2015. "Startups, Financing and Geography– Findings from a survey," Ratio Working Papers 255, The Ratio Institute.
    23. Cumming, Douglas & Zhang, Yelin, 2016. "Alternative investments in emerging markets: A review and new trends," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 1-23.
    24. Lam, Patrick T.I. & Law, Angel O.K., 2016. "Crowdfunding for renewable and sustainable energy projects: An exploratory case study approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 11-20.
    25. Schwienbacher, Armin, 2007. "A theoretical analysis of optimal financing strategies for different types of capital-constrained entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 753-781, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurial Finance; Capital Gaps; Pecking Order; Adverse Selection; Gender;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G22 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies

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