Determinants of required return in venture capital investments: a five-country study
Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we develop hypotheses regarding the determinants of the return required by venture capitalists and test them on a sample of over 200 venture capital companies (VCCs) located in five countries. Consistent with resource based theory, we find that early stage specialists require a significantly higher return than other VCCs when investing in later stage ventures. Consistent with financial theory, we find that acquisition /buyout specialists require a significantly lower return than other VCCs when investing in expansion companies. Furthermore, in comparison to specialists, highly stage-diversified VCCs require a significantly higher return for early stage investments. Independent VCCs require a higher rate of return than captive or public VCCs. In general, higher required returns are associated with VCCs providing more intensity of involvement, having shorter expected hold-ing period of the investment, and being located in the US or UK (in comparison to those in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands).
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Moerland, Pieter W., 1995. "Alternative disciplinary mechanisms in different corporate systems," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 17-34, January.
- Admati, Anat R & Pfleiderer, Paul, 1994. " Robust Financial Contracting and the Role of Venture Capitalists," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(2), pages 371-402, June.
- Rea, Robert H., 1989. "Factors affecting success and failure of seed capital/start-up negotiations," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 149-158, March.
- Mike Wright, 1998. "Venture Capital and Private Equity: A Review and Synthesis," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(5&6), pages 521-570.
- Manigart, Sophie, 1994. "The founding rate of venture capital firms in three European countries (1970-1990)," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(6), pages 525-541, November.
- Rosenstein, Joseph & Bruno, Albert V. & Bygrave, William D. & Taylor, Natalie T., 1993. "The CEO, venture capitalists, and the board," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 99-113, March.
- Norton, Edgar & Tenenbaum, Bernard H., 1993. "Specialization versus diversification as a venture capital investment strategy," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(5), pages 431-442, September.
- Manigart, Sophie & Struyf, Carol, 1997. "Financing High Technology Startups in Belgium: An Explorative Study," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 125-135, April.
- James G. March & Zur Shapira, 1987. "Managerial Perspectives on Risk and Risk Taking," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 33(11), pages 1404-1418, November.
- Siegel, Robin & Siegel, Eric & MacMillan, Ian C., 1988. "Corporate venture capitalists: Autonomy, obstacles, and performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 233-247.
- Sapienza, Harry J. & Manigart, Sophie & Vermeir, Wim, 1996. "Venture capitalist governance and value added in four countries," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(6), pages 439-469, November.
- Gorman, Michael & Sahlman, William A., 1989. "What do venture capitalists do?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 231-248, July.
- Ooghe, Hubert & Manigart, Sophie & Fassin, Yves, 1991. "Growth patterns of the European venture capital industry," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 6(6), pages 381-404, November.
- Robinson, Richard Jr., 1987. "Emerging strategies in the venture capital industry," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 53-77.
- Tyebjee, Tyzoon & Vickery, Lister, 1988. "Venture capital in Western Europe," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 123-136.
- Dan J. Laughhunn & John W. Payne & Roy Crum, 1980. "Managerial Risk Preferences for Below-Target Returns," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 26(12), pages 1238-1249, December.
- Macmillan, Ian C. & Kulow, David M. & Khoylian, Roubina, 1989. "Venture capitalists' involvement in their investments: Extent and performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 27-47, January.
- Sahlman, William A., 1990. "The structure and governance of venture-capital organizations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 473-521, October.
- Elango, B. & Fried, Vance H. & Hisrich, Robert D. & Polonchek, Amy, 1995. "How venture capital firms differ," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 157-179, March.
- Stevenson, Howard H. & Muzyka, Daniel F. & Timmons, Jeffry A., 1987. "Venture capital in transition: A Monte-Carlo simulation of changes in investment patterns," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 103-121.
- Joshua Lerner, 1994. "The Syndication of Venture Capital Investments," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
- Sapienza, Harry J., 1992. "When do venture capitalists add value?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 9-27, January.
- Wright, Mike & Thompson, Steve & Robbie, Ken, 1992. "Venture capital and management-led, leveraged buy-outs: A European perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 47-71, January.
- Raphael Amit & Lawrence Glosten & Eitan Muller, 1990. "Entrepreneurial Ability, Venture Investments, and Risk Sharing," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(10), pages 1233-1246, October.
- Gupta, Anil K. & Sapienza, Harry J., 1992. "Determinants of venture capital firms' preferences regarding the industry diversity and geographic scope of their investments," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 347-362, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbvent:v:17:y:2002:i:4:p:291-312. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.