Determinants of required return in venture capital investments: a five-country study
Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we develop hypotheses regarding the determinants of the return required by venture capitalists and test them on a sample of over 200 venture capital companies (VCCs) located in five countries. Consistent with resource based theory, we find that early stage specialists require a significantly higher return than other VCCs when investing in later stage ventures. Consistent with financial theory, we find that acquisition /buyout specialists require a significantly lower return than other VCCs when investing in expansion companies. Furthermore, in comparison to specialists, highly stage-diversified VCCs require a significantly higher return for early stage investments. Independent VCCs require a higher rate of return than captive or public VCCs. In general, higher required returns are associated with VCCs providing more intensity of involvement, having shorter expected hold-ing period of the investment, and being located in the US or UK (in comparison to those in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands).
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