IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Legality and venture capital governance around the world

  • Cumming, Douglas
  • Schmidt, Daniel
  • Walz, Uwe

We analyze governance with a new dataset on investments of venture capitalists in 3848 portfolio firms in 39 countries from North and South America, Europe and Asia spanning 1971-2003. We provide evidence that cross-country differences in legality, including legal origin and accounting standards, have a significant impact on the governance structure of investments in the VC industry: better laws facilitate faster deal screening and deal origination, a higher probability of syndication and a lower probability of potentially harmful co-investment, and facilitate investor board representation of the investor. We also show that country-specific differences exist apart from legal and economic development.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Business Venturing.

Volume (Year): 25 (2010)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 54-72

in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:jbvent:v:25:y:2010:i:1:p:54-72
Contact details of provider: Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Joshua Lerner, 1994. "The Syndication of Venture Capital Investments," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
  2. Dushnitsky, Gary & Lenox, Michael J., 2006. "When does corporate venture capital investment create firm value?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 753-772, November.
  3. Daniel Berkowitz & Karina Pistor & Jean-Francois Richard, 2001. "Economic Development, Legality, and the Transplant Effect," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 410, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  4. Klapper, Leora F. & Love, Inessa, 2002. "Corporate governance, investor protection, and performance in emerging markets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2818, The World Bank.
  5. Casamatta, Catherine, 2002. "Financing and Advising: Optimal Financial Contracts with Venture Capitalists," CEPR Discussion Papers 3475, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirguc-Kunt, 2005. "Law and Firms' Access to Finance," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(1), pages 211-252.
  7. Keuschnigg, Christian & Nielsen, Soren Bo, 2002. "Start-ups, Venture Capitalists and the Capital Gains Tax," CEPR Discussion Papers 3263, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Keuschnigg, Christian, 2003. "Optimal Public Policy for Venture Capital Backed Innovation," CEPR Discussion Papers 3850, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Cumming, Douglas J., 2005. "Agency costs, institutions, learning, and taxation in venture capital contracting," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 573-622, September.
  10. Walz, Uwe & Cumming, Douglas, 2004. "Private equity returns and disclosure around the world," CFS Working Paper Series 2004/05, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  11. Christian Keuschnigg & Søren Bo Nielsen, . "Tax Policy, Venture Capital, and Entrepreneurship," EPRU Working Paper Series 00-18, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  12. Kanniainen, V. & Keuschnigg, C., 2001. "Start-up Investment With Scarce Venture Capital Support," University of Helsinki, Department of Economics 503, Department of Economics.
  13. Kaplan, Steven N. & Martel, Frederic & Stromberg, Per, 2007. "How do legal differences and experience affect financial contracts?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 273-311, July.
  14. Bergemann, Dirk & Hege, Ulrich, 1997. "Venture Capital Financing, Moral Hazard and Learning," CEPR Discussion Papers 1738, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. RAFAEL LaPORTA & FLORENCIO LOPEZ-de-SILANES & ANDREI SHLEIFER & ROBERT W. VISHNY, . "Legal Determinants of External Finance,"," CRSP working papers 324, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  16. Manigart, Sophie & De Waele, Koen & Wright, Mike & Robbie, Ken & Desbrieres, Philippe & Sapienza, Harry J. & Beekman, Amy, 2002. "Determinants of required return in venture capital investments: a five-country study," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 291-312, July.
  17. Gompers, Paul & Lerner, Josh, 2000. "Money chasing deals? The impact of fund inflows on private equity valuation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 281-325, February.
  18. Josh Lerner & Antoinette Schoar, 2005. "Does Legal Enforcement Affect Financial Transactions? The Contractual Channel in Private Equity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 120(1), pages 223-246, January.
  19. Bascha, Andreas & Walz, Uwe, 2001. "Convertible securities and optimal exit decisions in venture capital finance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 285-306, September.
  20. Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, . "Value versus Growth: The International Evidence," CRSP working papers 341, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  21. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1998. "Law and Finance," Scholarly Articles 3451310, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  22. Laura Bottazzi & Marco Da Rin & Thomas Hellmann, 2005. "What Role of Legal Systems in Financial Intermediation? Theory and Evidence," Working Papers 283, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  23. Raaj Kumar Sah & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1984. "The Architecture of Economic Systems: Hierarchies and Polyarchies," NBER Working Papers 1334, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  24. Aghion, Philippe & Bolton, Patrick, 1992. "An Incomplete Contracts Approach to Financial Contracting," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(3), pages 473-94, July.
  25. Christian Keuschnigg & Søren Bo Nielsen, . "Public Policy for Venture Capital," EPRU Working Paper Series 01-06, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  26. Robert C. Merton, 1995. "A Functional Perspective of Financial Intermediation," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(2), Summer.
  27. Douglas Cumming & Sofia Johan, 2006. "Is it the Law or the Lawyers? Investment Covenants around the World," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(4), pages 535-574.
  28. Dyck, Alexander & Zingales, Luigi, 2002. "Private Benefits of Control: An International Comparison," CEPR Discussion Papers 3177, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  29. Vesa Kanniainen & Christian Keuschnigg, 2000. "The Optimal Portfolio of Start-Up Firms in Venture Capital Finance," CESifo Working Paper Series 381, CESifo Group Munich.
  30. Christian Keuschnigg & Søren Bo Nielsen, 2003. "Taxes and Venture Capital Support," CESifo Working Paper Series 1094, CESifo Group Munich.
  31. Douglas J. Cumming, 2006. "The Determinants of Venture Capital Portfolio Size: Empirical Evidence," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(3), pages 1083-1126, May.
  32. Sahlman, William A., 1990. "The structure and governance of venture-capital organizations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 473-521, October.
  33. Josh Lerner & Antoinetter Schoar, 2002. "The Illiquidity Puzzle: Theory and Evidence from Private Equity," NBER Working Papers 9146, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  34. Steven N. Kaplan & Per Stromberg, 2000. "Financial Contracting Theory Meets the Real World: An Empirical Analysis of Venture Capital Contracts," NBER Working Papers 7660, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  35. Sapienza, Harry J., 1992. "When do venture capitalists add value?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 9-27, January.
  36. Bhattacharya, Utpal & Daouk, Hazem & Welker, Michael, 2003. "The World Price of Earnings Opacity," Working Papers 127185, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
  37. Kiefer, Nicholas M, 1988. "Economic Duration Data and Hazard Functions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 26(2), pages 646-79, June.
  38. Yael V. Hochberg & Alexander Ljungqvist & Yang Lu, 2007. "Whom You Know Matters: Venture Capital Networks and Investment Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(1), pages 251-301, 02.
  39. Christian Keuschnigg, 2002. "Taxation of a Venture Capitalist with a Portfolio of Firms," CESifo Working Paper Series 813, CESifo Group Munich.
  40. Gompers, Paul A, 1995. " Optimal Investment, Monitoring, and the Staging of Venture Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1461-89, December.
  41. Cumming, Douglas & Fleming, Grant & Schwienbacher, Armin, 2006. "Legality and venture capital exits," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 214-245, January.
  42. Inderst, Roman & Muller, Holger M., 2004. "The effect of capital market characteristics on the value of start-up firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 319-356, May.
  43. David H. Hsu, 2004. "What Do Entrepreneurs Pay for Venture Capital Affiliation?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(4), pages 1805-1844, 08.
  44. Lockett, Andy & Wright, Mike, 2001. "The syndication of venture capital investments," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 375-390, October.
  45. Christian Keuschnigg & Søren Bo Nielsen, 2004. "Progressive Taxation, Moral Hazard, and Entrepreneurship," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 6(3), pages 471-490, 08.
  46. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
  47. Lerner, Josh, 1995. " Venture Capitalists and the Oversight of Private Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 301-18, March.
  48. Leleux, Benoit & Surlemont, Bernard, 2003. "Public versus private venture capital: seeding or crowding out? A pan-European analysis," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 81-104, January.
  49. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Nanda, Vikram, 1996. "Stabilization, Syndication, and Pricing of IPOs," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(01), pages 25-42, March.
  50. Josh Lerner, 2002. "Boom and bust in the venture capital industry and the impact on innovation," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q4, pages 25-39.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbvent:v:25:y:2010:i:1:p:54-72. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.