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Sources of Funds and Investment Activities of Venture Capital Funds: Evidence from Germany, Israel, Japan and the UK

  • Colin Mayer
  • Koen Schoors
  • Yishay Yafeh

We compare sources of funds and investment activities of venture capital (VC) funds in Germany, Israel, Japan and the UK using a newly constructed data set. The data provide a rare opportunity to evaluate relations between funds' sources of finance and activities. We find that sources of VC funds differ significantly across countries, e.g. banks are particularly important in Germany, corporations in Israel, insurance companies in Japan, and pension funds in the UK. VC investment patterns also differ across countries in terms of the stage, sector of financed companies and geographical focus of investments. These differences in investment patterns are related to the variations in funding sources - for example, bank and pension fund backed VC's invest in later stage activities than individual and corporate backed funds. The relations differ across countries; for example, bank backed VC funds in Germany and Japan are as involved in early stage finance as other funds in these countries, whereas they tend to invest in relatively late stage finance in Israel and the UK. We consider the implication of this for the influence of financial systems on relations between finance and activities.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 9645.

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Date of creation: Apr 2003
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Publication status: published as Mayer, Colin & Schoors, Koen & Yafeh, Yishay, 2005. "Sources of funds and investment activities of venture capital funds: evidence from Germany, Israel, Japan and the United Kingdom," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 586-608, June.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:9645
Note: CF
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  1. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
  2. Laura Bottazzi & Marco Da Rin, . "Euro.NM and the Financing of European Innovative Firms," Working Papers 171, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  3. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 1999. "Diversity of Opinion and Financing of New Technologies," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 98-30, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  4. Steven N. Kaplan & Per Stromberg, 2003. "Financial Contracting Theory Meets the Real World: An Empirical Analysis of Venture Capital Contracts," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(2), pages 281-315, 04.
  5. Cornelli, Francesca & Yosha, Oved, 1997. "Stage Financing and the Role of Convertible Debt," CEPR Discussion Papers 1735, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  7. Jeng, Leslie A. & Wells, Philippe C., 2000. "The determinants of venture capital funding: evidence across countries," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 241-289, September.
  8. Wendy Carlin & Colin Mayer, 1999. "Finance, Investment and Growth," OFRC Working Papers Series 1999fe09, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  9. Blass, Asher & Yafeh, Yishay, 2001. "Vagabond shoes longing to stray: Why foreign firms list in the United States," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 555-572, March.
  10. Black, Bernard S. & Gilson, Ronald J., 1998. "Venture capital and the structure of capital markets: banks versus stock markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 243-277, March.
  11. Paul A. Gompers & Josh Lerner, 1999. "What Drives Venture Capital Fundraising?," NBER Working Papers 6906, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Franklin Allen, . "Stock Markets and Resource Allocation (Reprint 036)," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 15-92, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  13. Hellmann, Thomas & Puri, Manju, 2000. "The Interaction between Product Market and Financing Strategy: The Role of Venture Capital," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(4), pages 959-84.
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