IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Measuring bank competition in China: A comparison of new versus conventional approaches applied to loan markets

Listed author(s):
  • Bing Xu

    ()

    (Universidad Carlos III)

  • Adrian van Rixtel

    ()

    (Bank for international settlements)

  • Michiel van Leuvensteijn

    ()

    (All pensions group)

Since the 1980s, important and progressive reforms have profoundly reshaped the structure of the Chinese banking system. Many empirical studies suggest that financial reform promoted bank competition in most mature and emerging economies. However, some earlier studies that adopted conventional approaches to measure competition concluded that bank competition in China declined during the past decade, despite these reforms. In this paper, we show both empirically and theoretically that this apparent contradiction is the result of flawed measurement. Conventional indicators such as the Lerner index and Panzar- Rosse H-statistic fail to measure competition in Chinese loan markets properly due to the system of interest rate regulation. By contrast, the relatively new Profit Elasticity (PE) approach that was introduced in Boone (2008) as Relative Profit Differences (RPD) does not evidence these shortcomings. Using balance sheet information for a large sample of banks operating in China during 1996-2008, we show that competition actually increased in the past decade when the PE indicator is used. We provide additional empirical evidence that supports our results. We find that these, firstly, are in line with the process of financial reform, as measured by several indices, and secondly are robust for a large number of alternative specifications and estimation methods. All in all, our analysis suggests that bank lending markets in China have been more competitive than previously assumed.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.bde.es/f/webbde/SES/Secciones/Publicaciones/PublicacionesSeriadas/DocumentosTrabajo/14/Fich/dt1404e.pdf
File Function: First version, March 2014
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Banco de España & Working Papers Homepage in its series Working Papers with number 1404.

as
in new window

Length: 68 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2014
Handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:1404
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.bde.es/

Web page: http://www.bde.es/bde/en/secciones/informes/Publicaciones_se/docs/
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. Fu, Xiaoqing (Maggie) & Heffernan, Shelagh, 2007. "Cost X-efficiency in China's banking sector," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 35-53.
  2. Panzar, John C & Rosse, James N, 1987. "Testing for "Monopoly" Equilibrium," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 443-456, June.
  3. Jean Tirole, 1988. "The Theory of Industrial Organization," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262200716, July.
  4. Stijn Claessens & Luc Laeven, 2004. "What drives bank competition? Some international evidence," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 563-592.
  5. Yiping Huang & Xun Wang, 2011. "Does Financial Repression Inhibit or Facilitate Economic Growth? A Case Study of Chinese Reform Experience," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 73, pages 833-855, December.
  6. Schmalensee, Richard, 1987. "Competitive advantage and collusive optima," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 351-367.
  7. Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2002. "Cost and Profit Efficiency of Financial Conglomerates and Universal Banks in Europe," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(1), pages 254-282, February.
  8. Kent Matthews & Zhiguo Xiao & Xu Zhang, 2009. "Rational Cost Inefficiency in Chinese Banks," Working Papers 292009, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  9. Stijn Claessens, 2009. "Competition in the Financial Sector: Overview of Competition Policies," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 24(1), pages 83-118, April.
  10. Michiel van Leuvensteijn & Christoffer Kok Sørensen & Jacob A. Bikker & Adrian A.R.J.M. van Rixtel, 2013. "Impact of bank competition on the interest rate pass-through in the euro area," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(11), pages 1359-1380, April.
  11. Rezvanian, Rasoul & Mehdian, Seyed, 2002. "An examination of cost structure and production performance of commercial banks in Singapore," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 79-98, January.
  12. Tabak, Benjamin M. & Fazio, Dimas M. & Cajueiro, Daniel O., 2012. "The relationship between banking market competition and risk-taking: Do size and capitalization matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 3366-3381.
  13. Cull, Robert & Xu, Lixin Colin, 2000. "Bureaucrats, State Banks, and the Efficiency of Credit Allocation: The Experience of Chinese State-Owned Enterprises," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 1-31, March.
  14. Matthews, Kent & Zhang, Nina (Xu), 2010. "Bank productivity in China 1997-2007: Measurement and convergence," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 617-628, December.
  15. Soedarmono, Wahyoe & Machrouh, Fouad & Tarazi, Amine, 2013. "Bank competition, crisis and risk taking: Evidence from emerging markets in Asia," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 196-221.
  16. Xiaoqiang Cheng & Hans Degryse, 2010. "The Impact of Bank and Non-Bank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 37(2), pages 179-199, June.
  17. Jacob A. Bikker & Jaap W.B. Bos, 2005. "Trends in Competition and Profitability in the Banking Industry: A Basic Framework," Chapters in SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum.
  18. Subal Kumbhakar & Dan Wang, 2007. "Economic reforms, efficiency and productivity in Chinese banking," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 105-129, October.
  19. Lau, Lawrence J., 1982. "On identifying the degree of competitiveness from industry price and output data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 93-99.
  20. Firth, Michael & Lin, Chen & Liu, Ping & Wong, Sonia M.L., 2009. "Inside the black box: Bank credit allocation in China's private sector," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 1144-1155, June.
  21. Jan Boone, 2008. "A New Way to Measure Competition," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(531), pages 1245-1261, 08.
  22. Leung, M.K. & Chan, Ricky Y.K., 2006. "Are foreign banks sure winners in post-WTO China?," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 221-234.
  23. Shaffer, Sherrill, 1983. "The Rosse-Panzar statistic and the Lerner index in the short run," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-2), pages 175-178.
  24. Berger, Allen N. & Mester, Loretta J., 1997. "Inside the black box: What explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 895-947, July.
  25. Allen, Franklin & Qian, Jun & Qian, Meijun, 2005. "Law, finance, and economic growth in China," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 57-116, July.
  26. Demsetz, Harold, 1973. "Industry Structure, Market Rivalry, and Public Policy," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 1-9, April.
  27. Boone, J. & van Ours, J.C. & van der Wiel, H.P., 2007. "How (Not) to Measure Competition," Discussion Paper 2007-32, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  28. Michael Geiger, 2008. "Instruments Of Monetary Policy In China And Their Effectiveness: 1994–2006," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 187, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
  29. Delis, Manthos D., 2012. "Bank competition, financial reform, and institutions: The importance of being developed," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 450-465.
  30. García-Herrero, Alicia & Gavilá, Sergio & Santabárbara, Daniel, 2009. "What explains the low profitability of Chinese banks?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 2080-2092, November.
  31. Abdul Abiad & Enrica Detragiache & Thierry Tressel, 2010. "A New Database of Financial Reforms," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 57(2), pages 281-302, June.
  32. Bikker, Jacob A. & Haaf, Katharina, 2002. "Competition, concentration and their relationship: An empirical analysis of the banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(11), pages 2191-2214, November.
  33. Carbó, Santiago & Humphrey, David & Maudos, Joaquín & Molyneux, Philip, 2009. "Cross-country comparisons of competition and pricing power in European banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 115-134, February.
  34. Jacob A. Bikker & Sherrill Shaffer & Laura Spierdijk, 2012. "Assessing Competition with the Panzar-Rosse Model: The Role of Scale, Costs, and Equilibrium," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(4), pages 1025-1044, November.
  35. Barbara Casu & Claudia Girardone, 2006. "Bank Competition, Concentration And Efficiency In The Single European Market," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 74(4), pages 441-468, 07.
  36. Michiel van Leuvensteijn & Jacob Bikker & Adrian van Rixtel & Christoffer Kok Sørensen, 2011. "A new approach to measuring competition in the loan markets of the euro area," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(23), pages 3155-3167.
  37. J. Boone & M. van Leuvensteijn, 2010. "Measuring competition using the Profit Elasticity: American Suger Industry, 1890 - 1914," Working Papers 10-20, Utrecht School of Economics.
  38. Berger, Allen N. & Hasan, Iftekhar & Zhou, Mingming, 2010. "The effects of focus versus diversification on bank performance: Evidence from Chinese banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1417-1435, July.
  39. Angelini, Paolo & Cetorelli, Nicola, 2003. " The Effects of Regulatory Reform on Competition in the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(5), pages 663-684, October.
  40. Ferri, Giovanni, 2009. "Are New Tigers supplanting Old Mammoths in China's banking system? Evidence from a sample of city commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 131-140, January.
  41. Schaeck, K. & Cihák, M., 2010. "Competition, Efficiency, and Soundness in Banking : An Industrial Organization Perspective," Discussion Paper 2010-68S, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  42. Chung-Hua Shen & Chin-Hwa Lu & Meng-Wen Wu, 2009. "Impact of Foreign Bank Entry on the Performance of Chinese Banks," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 17(3), pages 102-121.
  43. Ariff, Mohamed & Can, Luc, 2008. "Cost and profit efficiency of Chinese banks: A non-parametric analysis," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 260-273, June.
  44. Rasoul Rezvanian & Rima Turk Ariss & Seyed Mehdian, 2011. "Cost efficiency, technological progress and productivity growth of Chinese banking pre- and post-WTO accession," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(7), pages 437-454.
  45. Shih, Victor & Zhang, Qi & Liu, Mingxing, 2007. "Comparing the performance of Chinese banks: A principal component approach," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 15-34.
  46. Altunbas, Yener & Liu, Ming-Hau & Molyneux, Philip & Seth, Rama, 2000. "Efficiency and risk in Japanese banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(10), pages 1605-1628, October.
  47. Park, Albert & Sehrt, Kaja, 2001. "Tests of Financial Intermediation and Banking Reform in China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 608-644, December.
  48. Uchida, Hirofumi & Tsutsui, Yoshiro, 2005. "Has competition in the Japanese banking sector improved?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 419-439, February.
  49. Wendy Dobson & Anil K. Kashyap, 2006. "The Contradiction in China's Gradualist Banking Reforms," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 37(2), pages 103-162.
  50. Shelagh Heffernan & Xiaoqing Fu, 2010. "Determinants of financial performance in Chinese banking," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(20), pages 1585-1600.
  51. Michael Funke & Michael Paetz & Qianying Chen,, 2012. "Market and Non-Market Monetary Policy Tools in a Calibrated DSGE Model for Mainland China," Quantitative Macroeconomics Working Papers 21207, Hamburg University, Department of Economics.
  52. Catherine D. Wolfram, 1999. "Measuring Duopoly Power in the British Electricity Spot Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(4), pages 805-826, September.
  53. M. van Leuvensteijn, 2008. "The Boone-indicator: Identifying different regimes of competition for the American Sugar Refining Company 1890-1914," Working Papers 08-37, Utrecht School of Economics.
  54. Yao, Shujie & Han, Zhongwei & Feng, Genfu, 2008. "Ownership Reform, Foreign Competition, and Efficiency of Chinese Commercial Banks: A Non-Parametric Approach," WIDER Working Paper Series 038, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  55. Bresnahan, Timothy F., 1982. "The oligopoly solution concept is identified," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 87-92.
  56. Juan Fernández de Guevara & Joaquín Maudos & Francisco Pérez, 2005. "Market Power in European Banking Sectors," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 27(2), pages 109-137, April.
  57. Tomoyuki Fukumoto & Masato Higashi & Yasunari Inamura & Takeshi Kimura, 2010. "Effectiveness of Window Guidance and Financial Environment -- In Light of Japan's Experience of Financial Liberalization and a Bubble Economy --," Bank of Japan Review Series 10-E-4, Bank of Japan.
  58. Stock, James H & Wright, Jonathan H & Yogo, Motohiro, 2002. "A Survey of Weak Instruments and Weak Identification in Generalized Method of Moments," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(4), pages 518-529, October.
  59. Klaus Schaeck & Martin Cihak & Simon Wolfe, 2009. "Are Competitive Banking Systems More Stable?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(4), pages 711-734, 06.
  60. Fernandez de Guevara, Juan & Maudos, Joaquin & Perez, Francisco, 2007. "Integration and competition in the European financial markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 26-45, February.
  61. Yiping HUANG, 2010. "Dissecting the China Puzzle: Asymmetric Liberalization and Cost Distortion," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 5(2), pages 281-295, December.
  62. Fu, Xiaoqing (Maggie) & Heffernan, Shelagh, 2009. "The effects of reform on China's bank structure and performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 39-52, January.
  63. Allen Berger & Leora Klapper & Rima Turk-Ariss, 2009. "Bank Competition and Financial Stability," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 35(2), pages 99-118, April.
  64. Shujie Yao & Zhongwei Han & Genfu Feng, 2008. "Ownership Reform, Foreign Competition and Efficiency of Chinese Commercial Banks: A Non-parametric Approach," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(10), pages 1310-1326, October.
  65. Barbara Casu, 2009. "Competition issues in European banking," Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 17(2), pages 119-133, May.
  66. J. A. Bikker & M. van Leuvensteijn, 2008. "Competition and efficiency in the Dutch life insurance industry," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(16), pages 2063-2084.
  67. Alberto Salvo, 2010. "Inferring market power under the threat of entry: the case of the Brazilian cement industry," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 41(2), pages 326-350.
  68. Barros, Carlos P. & Chen, Zhongfei & Liang, Qi Bin & Peypoch, Nicolas, 2011. "Technical efficiency in the Chinese banking sector," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 2083-2089, September.
  69. Carol Ann Northcott, 2004. "Competition in Banking: A Review of the Literature," Staff Working Papers 04-24, Bank of Canada.
  70. Yuan, Yuan, 2006. "The state of competition of the Chinese banking industry," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 519-534, June.
  71. Lin, Xiaochi & Zhang, Yi, 2009. "Bank ownership reform and bank performance in China," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 20-29, January.
  72. Appelbaum, Elie, 1982. "The estimation of the degree of oligopoly power," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 287-299, August.
  73. Michael Koetter & James W. Kolari & Laura Spierdijk, 2012. "Enjoying the Quiet Life under Deregulation? Evidence from Adjusted Lerner Indices for U.S. Banks," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(2), pages 462-480, May.
  74. Boone, Jan, 2001. "Intensity of competition and the incentive to innovate," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 705-726, April.
  75. Chang, Tzu-Pu & Hu, Jin-Li & Chou, Ray Yeutien & Sun, Lei, 2012. "The sources of bank productivity growth in China during 2002–2009: A disaggregation view," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1997-2006.
  76. Zhao, Tianshu & Casu, Barbara & Ferrari, Alessandra, 2010. "The impact of regulatory reforms on cost structure, ownership and competition in Indian banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 246-254, January.
  77. Richard Podpiera, 2006. "Progress in China’s Banking Sector Reform; Has Bank Behavior Changed?," IMF Working Papers 06/71, International Monetary Fund.
  78. Sherrill Shaffer, 1994. "Bank competition in concentrated markets," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Mar, pages 3-16.
  79. Xu, Lei & Lin, Chien-Ting, 2007. "Can Chinese banks compete after accession to WTO?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 883-903, December.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:1404. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (María Beiro. Electronic Dissemination of Information Unit. Research Department. Banco de España)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.